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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the 454 Tanzanian adult study participants

From: Hypertension, kidney disease, HIV and antiretroviral therapy among Tanzanian adults: a cross-sectional study

Variable HIV-negative HIV-infected, HIV-infected,
Proportion (%) control ART-naive on ART
Median [IQR] (number = 153) (number = 151) (number = 150)
Female 94 (61.4%) 89 (58.9%) 115 (76.7%)
Age (in years) 38 [32 to 46] 37 [32 to 44] 40 [38 to 47]
Education level    
Incomplete primary 27 (17.7%) 25 (16.6%) 30 (20.0%)
Complete primary 82 (53.6%) 98 (64.9%) 94 (62.7%)
Secondary and above 44 (28.8%) 28 (18.5%) 26 (17.3%)
Work type    
Manual 109 (71.2%) 114 (75.5%) 105 (70.0%)
Office 44 (28.8%) 37 (24.5%) 45 (30.0%)
Vigorous work 15 (9.8%) 21 (13.9%) 33 (22.0%)
Mode of transportation    
Walking or bicycle 130 (85.0%) 110 (72.9%) 117 (78.0%)
Motorized vehicle 23 (15.0%) 41 (27.1%) 33 (22.0%)
Ease of Living Index a    
Low 86 (56.2%) 94 (62.3%) 81 (54.0%)
Middle 20 (13.1%) 24 (15.9%) 26 (17.3%)
Higher 47 (30.7%) 33 (21.9%) 43 (28.7%)
Ever smoking 6 (3.9%) 16 (10.6%) 10 (6.7%)
Current smoker 5 (3.3%) 4 (2.7%) 0
Fruit and vegetables servings/week 6 [4-12] 8 [5-12] 9 [6 to 13]
Sugary drinks/day 1 [0.5 to 2] 1 [0.5 to 2] 1 [1 to 2]
Current alcohol use    
None 119 (77.8%) 120 (79.5%) 136 (90.7%)
< once/week 19 (12.4%) 16 (10.6%) 8 (5.3%)
≥ once/week 15 (9.8%) 15 (9.9%) 6 (4.0%)
Body Mass Index (BMI) in kg/m 2 23.8 [22.3 to 25.8] 22 [20.2 to 24.3] 23.7 [21.5 to 27.9]
BMI <18.5 5 (3.3%) 18 (11.9%) 4 (2.7%)
BMI 18.5 to 25 104 (68.0%) 113 (74.8%) 80 (53.3%)
BMI 25 to 30 33 (21.6%) 9 (6.0%) 45 (30.0%)
BMI >30 11 (7.2%) 11 (7.3%) 21 (14.0%)
Waist-hip ratio 0.84 [0.82 to 0.87] 0.84 [0.80 to 0.89] 0.87 [0.82 to 0.91]
Central obesity b 44 (29.1%) 56 (37.1%) 78 (52.0%)
Diabetes mellitus 0 1 (0.7%) 1 (0.7%)
Current CD4 T-cell count in cells/μL NA 215 [150 to 321] 378 [263 to 521]
Nadir CD4 T-cell count in cells/μL NA 209 [120 to 302] 118.5 [68 to 196]
ART duration (months) NA NA 56 [31 to 68]
Protease inhibitor use NA NA 18 (12.0%)
  1. aEase of Living Index was defined according to the presence of water, electricity and/or flushing toilets inside the home. Low = 0/3, Medium = 1 to 2/3, Higher = 3/3. bDefined as waist-hip ratio of ≥0.85 for women and waist/hip ratio ≥0.90 for men. ART, antiretroviral therapy; IQR, interquartile range.