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Table 3 Factors associated with hypertension among 454 Tanzanian adults by multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age and sex

From: Hypertension, kidney disease, HIV and antiretroviral therapy among Tanzanian adults: a cross-sectional study

Variable No hypertension Hypertension Odds ratio [95% CI]
Proportion (%) (number = 378) (number = 76)  
Median [IQR]    
Female 251 (66.4%) 47 (61.8%) 1.10 [0.64 to 1.91]
Age (in years) 38 [32 to 44] 45 [39.5 to 52] 1.07 [1.04 to 1.09]
Education level    
Incomplete primary 72 (19.1%) 10 (13.2%) 1
Complete primary 221 (58.5%) 53 (69.7%) 2.09 [0.97 to 4.50]
Secondary and above 85 (22.5%) 13 (82.9%) 1.57 [0.61 to 4.02]
Work type    
Manual 274 (72.5%) 54 (71.1%) 1
Office 104 (27.5%) 22 (29.0%) 1.08 [0.62 to 1.91
Vigorous work 64 (16.9%) 5 (6.6%) 0.33 [0.13 to 0.88]
Transportation    
Walking or bicycle 301 (79.6%) 56 (74.7%) 1
Motorized vehicle 77 (20.4%) 20 (26.3%) 1.32 [0.73 to 2.39]
Ease of Living Index    
Low 219 (57.9%) 42 (55.3%) 1
Middle 54 (14.3%) 16 (21.1%) 1.96 [0.99 to 3.91]
Higher 105 (27.8%) 18 (23.7%) 0.96 [0.52 to 1.79]
Ever smoking 26 (6.9%) 6 (7.9%) 1.02 [0.37 to 2.76]
Current smoker 7 (1.9%) 2 (2.6%) 1.41 [0.25 to 8.14]
Fruit and vegetables servings/week 8 [5 to 12] 9 [5 to 13] 1.02 [0.98 to 1.06]
Sugary drinks/day 1 [1,2] 1 [0.5 to 2] 1.17 [0.98 to 1.40]
Current alcohol    
None 307 (81.2%) 68 (89.5%) 1
< once/Week 36 (9.5%) 7 (9.2%) 0.77 [0.31 to 1.89]
≥ once/Week 35 (9.3%) 1 (1.3%) 0.13 [0.02 to 0.99]
Body Mass Index (BMI) in kg/m 2 22.9 [20.9 to 25.1] 24.2 [22.3 to 28.2] 1.09 [1.03 to 1.15]
BMI <18.5 25 (6.6%) 2 (2.6%) 1
BMI 18.5 to 25 255 (67.5%) 42 (55.3%) 1.53 [0.34 to 6.84]
BMI 25 to 30 67 (17.7%) 20 (26.3%) 3.39 [0.73 to 15.77]
BMI >30 31 (8.2%) 12 (15.8%) 3.40 [0.67 to 17.15]
Waist-to-Hip Ratio 0.84 [0.81 to 0.89] 0.86 [0.83 to 0.91] 1.03 [0.98 to 1.08] for each 0.01 increase
Central obesity a 142 (37.6%) 36 (47.4%) 1.54 [0.90 to 2.64]
Current CD4 T-cell count (in cells/μL) b 267.5 [180 to 385] 453 [323 to 590] 1.003 [1.002 to 1.005] for each cell/μL
<200 71 (28.4%) 6 (11.8%) 1
200 to 350 98 (39.2%) 10 (19.6%) 0.88 [0.30 to 2.63]
350 to 500 46 (18.4%) 15 (29.4%) 2.44 [0.85 to 7.01]
>500 35 (14.0%) 20 (39.2%) 4.33 [1.51 to 12.40]
  1. aDefined as waist/hip ratio of ≥0.85 for women and waist/hip ratio ≥0.90 for men. bFor all 301 study subjects with HIV including 50 with hypertension and 250 without hypertension. CI, confidence interval; IQR, interquartile range.