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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients

From: A clinical prediction rule for diagnosing human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) in a hospital emergency department setting

Characteristic H7N9 Non-H7N9 P-value
(number = 121) (number = 2,603)  
Demographic
Age
14 to 59 years 50 (41.3) 1,293 (49.7) 0.077
≥60 years 71 (58.7) 1,310 (50.3)  
Data missing, % 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Sex
Female 35 (28.9) 1,045 (40.1) 0.013
Male 86 (71.1) 1,558 (59.9)  
Data missing, % 0 (0) 0 (0)  
History of poultry exposure
Yes 85 (70.2) 53 (2) <0.001
No 36 (29.8) 1,583 (60.8)  
Data missing, % 0 (0) 967 (37.1)  
Influenza vaccination history
Yes 0 (0) 32 (1.2) 0.999
No 36 (29.8) 1,603 (61.6)  
Data missing, % 85 (70.2) 968 (37.2)  
Smoking history
Yes 26 (21.5) 365 (14) 0.004
No 78 (64.5) 2,238 (86)  
Data missing, % 17 (14) 0 (0)  
History of underlying medical conditions
Yes 42 (34.7) 846 (32.5) 0.110
No 62 (51.2) 1,751 (67.3)  
Data missing, % 17 (14) 6 (0.2)  
Presence of symptoms on presentation
Fever 95 (78.5) 1,462 (56.2) <0.001
Data missing, % 17 (14) 0 (0)  
Cough 95 (78.5) 2,013 (77.3) <0.001
Data missing, % 17 (14) 3 (0.1)  
Hemoptysis 25 (20.7) 96 (3.7) <0.001
Data missing, % 17 (14) 11 (0.4)  
Shortness of breath 62 (51.2) 391 (15) <0.001
Data missing, % 17 (14) 9 (0.3)  
Sore throat 7 (5.8) 418 (16.1) 0.088
Data missing, % 40 (33.1) 10 (0.4)  
Rhinorrhea 2 (1.7) 131 (5) 0.435
Data missing, % 40 (33.1) 9 (0.3)  
Vomiting 4 (3.3) 67 (2.6) 0.351
Data missing, % 17 (14) 9 (0.3)  
Diarrhea 10 (8.3) 34 (1.3) <0.001
Data missing, % 17 (14) 9 (0.3)  
Investigations
Chest radiography
Normal 95 (78.5) 1,908 (73.3) <0.001
Pneumonia/consolidation 7 (5.8) 690 (26.5)  
Data missing, % 19 (15.7) 5 (0.2)  
Hemoglobin level
Low 20 (16.5) 903 (34.7) 0.029
Normal 77 (63.6) 1,463 (56.2)  
High 6 (5) 77 (3)  
Data missing, % 18 (14.9) 160 (6.1)  
Leukocyte count
Low 48 (39.7) 201 (7.7) 0.232
Normal 51 (42.1) 1,567 (60.2)  
High 5 (4.1) 728 (28)  
Data missing, % 17 (14) 107 (4.1)  
C-reactive protein
Normal 8 (6.6) 192 (7.4) 0.095
High 83 (68.6) 1,025 (39.4)  
Data missing, % 30 (24.8) 1,386 (53.2)