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Table 1 List of potential vascular factors implicated in Alzheimer’s disease

From: Cardiovascular risk factors and future risk of Alzheimer’s disease

Cardiovascular disease Pre-clinical markers of cardiovascular disease Established cardiovascular risk factors Emerging risk factors
Stroke Intima media thickness Blood pressure, hypertension, and arterial stiffness Inflammation
Atrial fibrillation Carotid plaques Glucose metabolism and diabetes mellitus Chronic kidney disease
Coronary heart disease Atherosclerotic calcification Hypercholesterolemia Thyroid function
Heart failure Lacunae and white matter lesions Smoking  
  Cerebral microbleeds Obesity  
  Cerebral microinfarcts Non-adherence to the Mediterranean diet and low levels of physical activity  
  Retinal vascular changes Homocysteine  
  Microstructural integrity and connectivity