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Table 1 Comparison of patient characteristics between DNRCC and non-DNR patients, and between DNRCC-Arrest and non-DNR patients before matching a,b

From: Two distinct Do-Not-Resuscitate protocols leaving less to the imagination: an observational study using propensity score matching

  DNRCC (n = 88) Pvaluec Non-DNR (n = 2,051) Pvalued DNRCC-Arrest (n = 188)
Age 63.61 ± 15.52 <0.01 54.23 ± 17.76 <0.01 66.83 ± 16.28
Sex (male) 52 (59.09%) 0.19 1065 (51.93%) 0.82 96 (51.06%)
APACHE II minus GCS 23.60 ± 8.05 <0.01 15.20 ± 6.83 <0.01 21.39 ± 7.27
GCS 7.68 ± 4.60 <0.01 12.07 ± 4.00 <0.01 10.57 ± 4.39
Length of stay in the ICU by hour 91.99 ± 130.42 0.16 72.00 ± 86.21 <0.01 120.04 ± 130.75
Length of stay in the hospital by hour 155.47 ± 170.19 0.03 197.58 ± 205.09 <0.01 256.77 ± 210.98
Admission delaye 34 (38.64%) <0.01 463 (22.57%) 0.03 56 (29.79%)
Intubated during ICU stay 56 (63.64%) <0.01 552 (26.91%) <0.01 73 (38.83%)
Prior end-of-life decision documented 6 (6.82%) <0.01 43 (2.10%) 0.15 7 (3.72%)
Cared for by only one intensivistf 51 (57.95%) 0.36 1288 (62.80%) <0.01 86 (45.74%)
Elixhauser comorbidity measuresg   <0.01 ~ 0.97   <0.01 ~ 0.91  
Insurance type   <0.01   <0.01  
Private 41 (46.59%)   611 (29.79%)   74 (39.36%)
Medicare only 11 (12.50%)   257 (12.53%)   38 (20.21%)
Medicaid only 14 (15.91%)   506 (24.67%)   34 (18.09%)
Medicare and Medicaid 17 (19.32%)   316 (15.41%)   29 (15.43%)
None 5 (5.68%)   361 (17.60%)   13 (6.91%)
Source of admission to the ICU   0.02   0.10  
Emergency department 53 (60.23%)   1513 (73.77%)   124 (65.96%)
Floorh 31 (35.23%)   413 (20.14%)   53 (28.19%)
Other ICU 2 (2.27%)   49 (2.39%)   6 (3.19%)
Outside hospital 1 (1.14%)   26 (1.27%)   2 (1.06%)
Miscellaneous/others 1 (1.14%)   50 (2.44%)   3 (1.60%)
Race/ethnicity   0.47   <0.01  
White American 60 (68.18%)   1277 (62.26%)   141 (75%)
African American 23 (26.14%)   602 (29.35%)   37 (19.68%)
Other 5 (5.68%)   172 (8.39%)   10 (5.32%)
ICU admission diagnosisi   <0.01   <0.01  
Medical-respiratory diseases 37 (42.53%)   587 (28.96%)   74 (39.36%)
Medical-gastrointestinal diseases 6 (6.9%)   321 (15.84%)   23 (12.23%)
Medical-cardiovascular diseases 18 (20.69%)   347 (17.12%)   50 (26.60%)
Medical-neurological diseases 20 (22.99%)   334 (16.48%)   35 (18.62%)
Other 6 (6.9%)   438 (21.61%)   6 (3.19%)
Daily cost of ICU stay 7592 ± 7465 0.02 5691 ± 4578 0.16 5302 ± 3546
Daily cost of hospital stay 5966 ± 7374 <0.01 3191 ± 2033 <0.01 3878 ± 3452
Daily discretionary cost of ICU stay 2666 ± 3239 0.03 1878 ± 2416 0.77 1822 ± 2466
  1. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; DNR, Do-Not-Resuscitate; DNRCC, Do-Not-Resuscitate Comfort Care; DNRCC-Arrest Do-Not-Resuscitate Comfort Care-Arrest; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; ICU, medical intensive care unit.
  2. aThe statistical association between two categorical variables was examined using the χ2 test.
  3. bThe statistical association between a categorical variable and a continuous variable was examined using Student's t-test.
  4. cStatistical significance for the comparisons between DNRCC and non-DNR patients.
  5. dStatistical significance for the comparisons between DNRCC-Arrest and non-DNR patients.
  6. e“Admission delay” means that the time between hospital admission and ICU admission was not zero.
  7. f“Cared for by only one intensivist” means that the patient was cared for by only one intensivist during their ICU stay.
  8. gSee Additional file 2: Table S2 for the comparison of Elixhauser comorbidity measures between DNRCC and non-DNR, and between DNRCC-Arrest and non-DNR before propensity score matching.
  9. h“Floor” means that the patient was admitted to other departments before admitting to ICU.
  10. i“ICU admission diagnosis” for non-DNR patients had 24 missing data items.