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Table 2 Comparison of patient characteristics and medical care between DNRCC and non-DNR patients after matching a,b

From: Two distinct Do-Not-Resuscitate protocols leaving less to the imagination: an observational study using propensity score matching

  DNRCC (n = 88) Non-DNR (n = 88) Pvalue SD
Patient characteristics     
 Age 63.61 ± 15.52 64.01 ± 16.98 0.87 -0.02
Sex (male) 52 (59.09%) 54 (61.36%) 0.76 -0.05
 APACHE II minus GCS 23.60 ± 8.05 23.31 ± 7.41 0.80 0.04
 GCS 7.68 ± 4.60 7.61 ± 4.33 0.92 0.02
 Length of stay in the ICU by hour 91.99 ± 130.42 107.74 ± 132.81 0.43 -0.12
 Length of stay in the hospital by hour 155.47 ± 170.19 184.31 ± 161.66 0.25 -0.17
 Admission delayc 34 (38.64%) 29 (32.95%) 0.43 0.12
 Intubated during ICU stay 56 (63.64%) 56 (63.64%) 1.00 0
 Prior end-of-life decision documented 6 (6.82%) 7 (7.95%) 0.77 -0.04
 Cared for by only one intensivistd 51 (57.95%) 52 (59.09%) 0.88 -0.02
 Elixhauser comorbidity measurese - - 0.15 ~ 1.00 -0.14 ~ 0.22
Insurance type    0.78  
 Private 41 (46.59%) 41 (46.59%)   0
 Medicare only 11 (12.50%) 7 (7.95%)   0.15
 Medicaid only 14 (15.91%) 19 (21.59%)   0.15
 Medicare and Medicaid 17 (19.32%) 17 (19.32%)   0
 None 5 (5.68%) 4 (4.55%)   0.05
Source of admission to ICU    0.88  
 Emergency department 53 (60.23%) 58 (65.91%)   -0.12
 Floorf 31 (35.23%) 25 (28.41%)   0.15
 Other ICU 2 (2.27%) 2 (2.27%)   0
 Outside hospital 1 (1.14%) 1 (1.14%)   0
 Miscellaneous/other 1 (1.14%) 2 (2.27%)   -0.09
Race/ethnicity    0.99  
 White American 60 (68.18%) 61 (69.32%)   -0.02
 African American 23 (26.14%) 22 (25%)   0.03
 Other 5 (5.68%) 5 (5.68%)   0
ICU admission diagnosisg    0.97  
 Medical-respiratory diseases 37 (42.53%) 35 (40.70%)   0.05
 Medical-gastrointestinal diseases 6 (6.9%) 5 (5.81%)   -0.10
 Medical-cardiovascular diseases 18 (20.69%) 16 (18.60%)   0.06
 Medical-neurological diseases 20 (22.99%) 23 (26.74%)   -0.08
 Others 6 (6.9%) 7 (8.14%)   -0.05
Medical care     
 Daily cost of ICU stay 7592 ± 7465 6528 ± 4829 0.26  
 Daily cost of hospital stay 5966 ± 7374 4616 ± 3989 0.13  
 Daily discretionary cost of ICU stay 2666 ± 3239 2286 ± 2371 0.38  
 Pharmacological/electrical cardioversion 15 (17.05%) 20 (22.73%) 0.35  
 Vasopressor 36 (40.91%) 23 (26.14%) 0.04  
 Intravenous antibiotics 66 (75%) 71 (80.68%) 0.36  
 Renal replacement therapy 4 (4.55%) 18 (20.45%) <0.01  
 Blood component transfusion 25 (28.41%) 26 (29.55%) 0.87  
 Central venous line placement 36 (40.91%) 45 (51.14%) 0.17  
 Pain control using morphine/fentanyl 75 (85.23%) 42 (47.73%) <0.01  
 Pastoral care 42 (47.73%) 30 (34.09%) 0.07  
 Hospice/palliative care consultation 27 (30.68%) 8 (9.09%) <0.01  
  1. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; DNR, Do-Not-Resuscitate; DNRCC, Do-Not-Resuscitate Comfort Care; DNRCC-Arrest Do-Not-Resuscitate Comfort Care-Arrest; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; ICU, medical intensive care unit.
  2. aThe statistical association between two categorical variables was examined using the χ2 test.
  3. bThe statistical association between a categorical variable and a continuous variable was examined using Student's t-test.
  4. c“Admission delay” means that the time between hospital admission and ICU admission was not zero.
  5. d“Cared for by only one intensivist” means that the patient was cared for by only one intensivist during their ICU stay.
  6. eSee Additional file 3: Table S3 for the comparison of Elixhauser comorbidity measures between DNRCC and non-DNR after propensity score matching.
  7. f“Floor” means that the patient was admitted to other departments before admitting to ICU.
  8. g“ICU admission diagnosis” was missing for two non-DNR patients and one DNRCC patient.