Forest plot of the association of Pv AMA1, Pv RBP1, and Pv SERA4 IgG responses with Plasmodium vivax infection. Estimates represent the odds of P. vivax infection in responders compared with non-responders. 1Colina study site; 2Ribeirinha study site. aEstimate supplied by original authors following correspondence; bdata supplied by original authors and estimate calculated by the current authors. All estimates are unadjusted, with the exception of the estimate from Fowkes et al.  which was adjusted for gravidity, trimester, and prophylaxis, and the estimates from Tran et al. , which were adjusted for age. When I
2 was ≥30%, meta-analysis based on a fixed-effects model was conducted. Abbreviations: LM, light microscopy; W, weight.