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Table 1 Characteristics of participants in the cross-sectional NAFLD prediction cohort according to NAFLD status a

From: Non-invasive score identifies ultrasonography-diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and predicts mortality in the USA

Characteristics No NAFLD (n = 4,117) NAFLD (n = 1,067) Pvalue
  Value 95% CI Value 95% CI  
Age, years 40.42 39.59 to 41.25 45.32 43.97 to 46.67 <0.001
Female sex, % 52.6 50.4 to 54.7 45.6 41.7 to 49.5 0.005
Race/ethnicity, %      <0.001
 Non-Hispanic white 74.9 71.2 to 78.3 73.6 69.6 to 77.3  
 Non-Hispanic black 11.6 10.1 to 13.4 8.7 7.3 to 10.3  
 Mexican-American 4.7 3.7 to 5.8 7.6 6.2 to 9.3  
 Other 8.8 6.5 to 11.8 10.1 7.3 to 13.8  
Education      0.001
 < High school 5.5 4.2 to 7.1 8.4 6.4 to 11.1  
 High school 14.1 12.5 to 16.0 18.9 15.6 to 22.8  
 > High school 80.4 77.7 to 82.8 72.6 67.8 to 77.0  
Smoking      <0.001
 Never 48.6 46.2 to 51.1 41.9 38.1 to 45.7  
 Former 23.2 21.5 to 25.1 32.8 29.4 to 36.5  
 Current 28.1 25.8 to 30.6 25.3 21.7 to 29.3  
Diabetes, % 1.9 1.6 to 2.2 9.8 7.6 to 12.5 <0.001
Hypertension, % 16.0 14.6 to 17.6 33.7 29.9 to 37.6 <0.001
Lipid-lowering medication, % 2.4 1.8 to 3.0 5.0 3.4 to 7.1 <0.001
History of CVD, % 1.8 1.3 to 2.3 3.9 2.8 to 5.4 0.002
Metabolic syndrome, % 16.9 15.3 to 18.7 54.8 51.2 to 58.5 <0.001
Abdominal obesity, % 28.0 26.5 to 29.5 65.2 61.3 to 68.9 <0.001
Hypertriglyceridemia, % 22.8 20.5 to 25.3 54.3 50.4 to 58.2 <0.001
Impaired fasting glucose, % 20.1 18.5 to 21.8 42.1 38.4 to 46.0 <0.001
Low HDL level, % 35.50 32.7 to 38.5 60.1 54.9 to 65.0 <0.001
Body mass index, kg/m2 25.72 25.51 to 25.93 30.29 29.76 to 30.82 <0.001
Waist circumference, cm 88.82 88.35 to 89.3 101.75 100.36 to 103.13 <0.001
Serum cholesterol, mg/dl 199.83 198.5 to 201.17 208.63 205.63 to 211.63 <0.001
Serum triglycerides, mg/dl 117.71 114.18 to 121.24 192.30 183.44 to 201.15 <0.001
Serum HDL cholesterol, mg/dl 51.04b 50.15 to 51.93 42.91d 41.67 to 44.15 <0.001
Plasma glucose, mg/dl 94.07c 93.41 to 94.73 104.95 102.56 to 107.33 <0.001
Serum insulin, μU/ml 8.80 8.54 to 9.06 16.09 14.85 to 17.33 <0.001
SBP, mmHg 118.42 117.55 to 119.3 125.7e 124.7 to 126.7 <0.001
AST, U/L 19.60 19.21 to 20 25.24 24.31 to 26.17 <0.001
ALT, U/L 15.70 15.03 to 16.36 25.68 24.27 to 27.09 <0.001
GGT, U/L 24.42 23.69 to 25.15 41.61 37.77 to 45.44 <0.001
FLI 34.70 33.41 to 35.99 67.56 64.92 to 70.2 <0.001
HSI 33.10 32.7 to 33.49 39.26 38.64 to 39.89 <0.001
LFS  1.92  2.03 to to 1.82 0.21  0.04 to 0.46 <0.001
Liver fat percentage, % 2.45 2.33 to 2.56 5.88 5.49 to 6.27 <0.001
LAP 39.74 38.08 to 41.40 91.71 86.35 to 97.06 <0.001
  1. ALT, alanine aminotransferase: AST, aspartate aminotransferase; CVD, cardiovascular disease; FLI, fatty liver index; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HSI, hepatic steatosis index; LAP, lipid accumulation product; LFS, liver fat score; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease SBP, systolic blood pressure.
  2. aNo NAFLD: no or mild hepatic steatosis; NAFLD: moderate or severe hepatic steatosis.
  3. Numbers of participants: b4108; c4109; d1061; e1049.