Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Food group and macronutrient consumption: between treatment group comparison a

From: The effects of antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice for women who are overweight or obese on maternal diet and physical activity: the LIMIT randomised trial

Outcome Time point Lifestyle advice (n = 945)b Standard care (n = 928)b Adjusted treatment × time interactionP-valuec Adjusted treatment effect
P 95% CI
Total energy, kJd Trial entry 8678.89 (2690.39) 8501.40 (2565.19) 0.99 0.09 178.60 (-26.56 to 383.77)
28 weeks 8772.33 (2545.60) 8675.26 (2792.00)    
36 weeks 8667.72 (2585.28) 8568.86 (2751.49)    
4 months 8763.08 (2694.71) 8628.89 (2686.06)    
Breads and cereals, servings/dayd Trial entry 2.63 (1.45) 2.61 (1.43) 0.82 0.27 0.06 (-0.04 to 0.16)
28 weeks 2.65 (1.34) 2.59 (1.42)    
36 weeks 2.66 (1.33) 2.59 (1.42)    
4 months 2.58 (1.39) 2.51 (1.37)    
Dairy, servings/day Trial entry 2.05 (1.34) 2.21 (1.52) 0.002 0.02 -0.17 (-0.30 to -0.03)
28 weeks 2.30 (1.24) 2.24 (1.39)   0.09 0.12 (-0.02 to 0.25)
36 weeks 2.42 (1.42) 2.33 (1.40)   0.24 0.09 (-0.06 to 0.24)
4 months 2.28 (1.36) 2.24 (1.42)   0.56 0.05 (-0.11 to 0.21)
Fruit, servings/dayd Trial entry 2.67 (2.07) 2.48 (1.63) 0.44 0.002 0.21 (0.08 to 0.35)
28 weeks 2.70 (1.62) 2.43 (1.74)    
36 weeks 2.56 (1.47) 2.34 (1.67)    
4 months 2.24 (1.64) 2.11 (1.56)    
Meat and legumes, servings/dayd Trial entry 2.14 (1.03) 2.10 (0.94) 0.67 0.14 0.06 (-0.02 to 0.14)
28 weeks 2.17 (1.08) 2.10 (0.97)    
36 weeks 2.14 (0.91) 2.08 (1.05)    
4 months 2.30 (0.95) 2.29 (1.08)    
Vegetables, servings/day Trial entry 4.96 (2.64) 4.82 (2.57) 0.03 0.30 0.13 (-0.12 to 0.38)
28 weeks 5.16 (2.68) 4.71 (2.37)   0.0002 0.47 (0.22 to 0.72)
36 weeks 4.87 (2.54) 4.51 (2.65)   0.003 0.40 (0.13 to 0.67)
4 months 5.63 (3.12) 5.24 (2.62)   0.003 0.50 (0.17 to 0.82)
Non-core group foods, servings/day Trial entry 7.51 (3.81) 7.27 (3.61) 0.01 0.10 0.29 (-0.06 to 0.65)
28 weeks 6.84 (3.24) 7.14 (3.41)   0.17 -0.24 (-0.58 to 0.10)
36 weeks 6.86 (3.54) 6.96 (3.24)   0.72 -0.06 (-0.41 to 0.28)
4 months 8.15 (3.69) 7.95 (3.76)   0.41 0.17 (-0.24 to 0.59)
Alcohol, gd Trial entry 2.25 (5.21) 2.48 (6.47) 0.59 0.20 0.07 (-0.03 to 0.17)
28 weeks 0.34 (1.35) 0.25 (0.86)    
36 weeks 0.31 (1.42) 0.27 (1.06)    
4 months 2.27 (4.04) 2.18 (4.92)    
Dietary fibre, gd Trial entry 32.39 (12.91) 31.64 (12.43) 0.16 0.002 1.55 (0.55 to 2.56)
28 weeks 33.75 (12.39) 31.88 (12.42)    
36 weeks 32.78 (11.80) 30.93 (12.89)    
4 months 34.09 (13.61) 32.50 (12.68)    
Carbohydrates, gd Trial entry 255.27 (90.54) 246.38 (83.50) 0.69 0.06 6.55 (-0.19 to 13.29)
28 weeks 258.11 (82.97) 255.89 (93.44)    
36 weeks 253.61 (85.76) 251.43 (90.66)    
4 months 247.86 (89.54) 243.25 (88.71)    
Percentage energy from carbohydratesd Trial entry 46.85 (5.97) 46.22 (5.59) 0.23 0.39 0.19 (-0.24 to 0.62)
28 weeks 46.96 (5.33) 46.89 (5.30)    
36 weeks 46.61 (5.44) 46.68 (5.81)    
4 months 44.89 (5.91) 44.76 (6.18)    
Protein, gd Trial entry 97.59 (30.65) 97.80 (30.58) 0.07 0.14 1.82 (-0.57 to 4.22)
28 weeks 100.07 (32.16) 97.56 (30.59)    
36 weeks 100.13 (30.22) 97.10 (32.18)    
4 months 102.67 (31.15) 101.24 (30.08)    
Percentage energy from protein Trial entry 22.72 (3.83) 23.22 (3.88) 0.0001 0.008 -0.49 (-0.86 to -0.13)
28 weeks 22.98 (3.74) 22.82 (3.66)   0.11 0.31 (-0.07 to 0.68)
36 weeks 23.35 (3.85) 22.98 (4.04)   0.11 0.33 - 0.08 to 0.75)
4 months 23.80 (4.25) 23.87 (4.26)   0.80 -0.06 (-0.55 to 0.42)
Total Fat, gd Trial entry 65.28 (23.60) 64.33 (22.27) 0.83 0.48 0.64 (-1.14 to 2.41)
28 weeks 66.54 (22.50) 66.70 (23.62)    
36 weeks 65.98 (22.14) 66.24 (23.70)    
4 months 68.16 (23.68) 67.72 (23.99)    
Percentage energy from total fatd Trial entry 27.77 (4.51) 27.97 (4.20) 0.42 0.06 -0.31 (-0.64 to 0.02)
28 weeks 28.02 (4.19) 28.45 (4.19)    
36 weeks 28.13 (4.23) 28.59 (4.36)    
4 months 28.76 (4.31) 29.00 (4.39)    
Saturated fat, gd Trial entry 26.47 (10.98) 26.08 (10.01) 0.50 0.71 0.15 (-0.64 to 0.94)
28 weeks 26.98 (9.87) 27.37 (10.30)    
36 weeks 27.10 (10.20) 27.48 (10.62)    
4 months 27.49 (10.51) 27.25 (10.29)    
Percentage energy from saturated fatd Trial entry 11.23 (2.50) 11.34 (2.38) 0.09 0.04 -0.20 (-0.38 to -0.01)
28 weeks 11.37 (2.33) 11.70 (2.41)    
36 weeks 11.52 (2.41) 11.85 (2.47)    
4 months 11.59 (2.43) 11.68 (2.47)    
Monounsaturated fat, gd Trial entry 22.60 (8.56) 22.28 (8.13) 0.75 0.62 0.16 (-0.48 to 0.81)
28 weeks 22.99 (8.27) 23.12 (8.70)    
36 weeks 22.72 (7.96) 22.81 (8.72)    
4 months 23.69 (8.72) 23.65 (9.12)    
Polyunsaturated fat, gd Trial entry 9.09 (3.50) 8.95 (3.59) 0.90 0.23 0.17 (-0.11 to 0.45)
28 weeks 9.31 (3.67) 9.13 (3.81)    
36 weeks 9.06 (3.33) 8.89 (3.71)    
4 months 9.48 (3.71) 9.43 (4.16)    
  1. aValues are mean ± SD and treatment effects are differences in means (with 95% confidence interval and P -value) by time point estimated from a linear mixed effects model including treatment, time and treatment × time, adjusted for centre, parity and BMI.
  2. bIncludes women who had a live birth, and who answered one or more questionnaires; excludes questionnaires with >25% missing responses, or where there was an unrealistic energy intake reported (<4,500 or >20,000 kJ).
  3. cWhere the treatment × time interaction was not statistically significant, it was dropped from the model.
  4. dValues are mean ± SD and treatment effects are differences in means (with 95% confidence interval and P-value) across all time points estimated from a linear mixed effects model including treatment and time, adjusted for centre, parity and BMI.