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Table 3 Dietary micronutrient consumption: between treatment group comparison a

From: The effects of antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice for women who are overweight or obese on maternal diet and physical activity: the LIMIT randomised trial

Outcome Time point Lifestyle advice (n = 945)b Standard care (n = 928)b Adjusted treatment × time interactionP-valuec Adjusted treatment effect
P 95% CI
Caffeine, mgd Trial entry 142.59 (156.88) 136.59 (156.36) 0.57 0.57 3.68 (-8.90 to 16.26)
28 weeks 134.63 (147.21) 132.76 (147.04)    
36 weeks 129.61 (141.89) 128.55 (140.66)    
4 months 202.78 (191.12) 191.83 (185.43)    
Sodium, mgd Trial entry 2713.21 (1080.73) 2644.16 (1102.75) 0.86 0.10 70.55 (-13.71 to 154.81)
28 weeks 2684.04 (1038.11) 2651.08 (1048.43)    
36 weeks 2704.91 (1059.82) 2620.33 (1045.35)    
4 months 2822.92 (1164.27) 2759.30 (1092.84)    
Calcium, mg Trial entry 930.81 (388.80) 963.43 (429.48) 0.007 0.11 -32.10 (-71.25 to 7.04)
28 weeks 1009.34 (366.54) 984.56 (400.48)   0.04 40.73 (1.57 to 79.88)
36 weeks 1031.14 (421.66) 1003.76 (404.85)   0.15 31.99 (-11.04 to 75.02)
4 months 1007.13 (415.11) 990.64 (416.75)   0.37 21.26 (-25.14 to 67.67)
Iron, mgd Trial entry 13.79 (4.79) 13.57 (4.61) 0.83 0.08 0.33 (-0.04 to 0.70)
28 weeks 14.21 (4.56) 13.94 (4.92)    
36 weeks 14.03 (4.48) 13.69 (5.04)    
4 months 14.51 (4.79) 14.08 (4.77)    
Zinc, mgd Trial entry 11.71 (3.69) 11.71 (3.56) 0.08 0.11 0.23 (-0.06 to 0.52)
28 weeks 12.14 (3.70) 11.82 (3.70)    
36 weeks 12.12 (3.68) 11.75 (3.90)    
4 months 12.36 (3.74) 12.12 (3.62)    
Magnesium, mgd Trial entry 344.03 (116.89) 342.67 (116.44) 0.11 0.06 9.07 (-0.20 to 18.33)
28 weeks 356.11 (110.62) 344.98 (119.15)    
36 weeks 353.11 (112.18) 340.31 (117.27)    
4 months 364.02 (119.85) 354.13 (118.78)    
Phosphorus, mgd Trial entry 1586.85 (497.80) 1595.95 (515.48) 0.08 0.16 28.14 (-11.27 to 67.56)
28 weeks 1657.50 (493.47) 1618.65 (509.91)    
36 weeks 1671.51 (516.33) 1626.25 (518.62)    
4 months 1689.35 (528.98) 1655.95 (514.58)    
Potassium, mg Trial entry 3591.78 (1220.73) 3570.31 (1169.87) 0.05 0.69 23.15 (-90.33 to 136.63)
28 weeks 3723.05 (1129.40) 3586.57 (1223.47)   0.004 173.10 (54.97 to 291.23)
36 weeks 3674.33 (1131.83) 3541.08 (1185.20)   0.01 158.03 (38.14 to 277.92)
4 months 3781.35 (1271.44) 3657.89 (1165.91)   0.06 127.88 (-4.96 to 260.72)
Iodine, μgd Trial entry 204.05 (108.94) 205.81 (105.00) 0.37 0.38 3.54 (-4.36 to 11.44)
28 weeks 210.93 (97.92) 206.26 (96.36)    
36 weeks 215.94 (101.27) 209.86 (99.91)    
4 months 214.81 (109.29) 212.34 (102.24)    
Vitamin A Active Equivalent, μgd Trial entry 1475.35 (974.00) 1404.15 (752.52) 0.16 0.003 110.40 (36.48 to 184.32)
28 weeks 1605.54 (1323.79) 1424.89 (890.08)    
36 weeks 1462.83 (821.57) 1363.63 (877.70)    
4 months 1658.00 (1077.44) 1539.68 (852.02)    
Retinol, μgd Trial entry 366.23 (558.09) 336.37 (311.97) 0.34 0.33 18.56 (-18.64 to 55.75)
28 weeks 422.55 (1087.70) 372.54 (607.22)    
36 weeks 349.30 (400.65) 369.78 (508.35)    
4 months 376.11 (626.42) 371.01 (464.27)    
Vitamin B1 (thiamine), mgd Trial entry 1.55 (0.57) 1.52 (0.56) 0.50 0.07 0.04 (-0.00 to 0.08)
28 weeks 1.61 (0.55) 1.57 (0.61)    
36 weeks 1.62 (0.55) 1.56 (0.62)    
4 months 1.58 (0.57) 1.54 (0.56)    
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), mg Trial entry 2.14 (0.84) 2.19 (0.87) 0.02 0.22 -0.05 (-0.13 to 0.03)
28 weeks 2.33 (0.79) 2.28 (0.89)   0.05 0.08 (-0.00 to 0.17)
36 weeks 2.37 (0.86) 2.33 (0.87)   0.23 0.06 (-0.03 to 0.15)
4 months 2.34 (0.87) 2.29 (0.85)   0.24 0.06 (-0.04 to 0.15)
Niacin, mgd Trial entry 22.60 (7.43) 22.49 (7.24) 0.32 0.09 0.49 (-0.08 to 1.07)
28 weeks 23.02 (7.61) 22.57 (7.47)    
36 weeks 23.04 (7.05) 22.35 (7.75)    
4 months 23.89 (7.47) 23.25 (7.08)    
Vitamin C, mgd Trial entry 165.11 (117.86) 152.24 (90.04) 0.50 0.02 8.87 (1.40 to 16.34)
28 weeks 158.26 (91.27) 147.34 (100.64)    
36 weeks 149.35 (87.94) 142.60 (99.13)    
4 months 139.11 (89.17) 133.80 (77.94)    
Vitamin E, mgd Trial entry 7.37 (2.90) 7.35 (2.91) 0.71 0.17 0.16 (-0.07 to 0.38)
28 weeks 7.58 (2.77) 7.39 (2.97)    
36 weeks 7.40 (2.71) 7.23 (2.85)    
4 months 7.94 (3.10) 7.74 (3.14)    
Folate, μgd Trial entry 529.62 (206.87) 520.74 (210.02) 0.49 0.03 17.49 (1.26 to 33.71)
28 weeks 545.59 (203.52) 528.35 (212.15)    
36 weeks 540.67 (196.49) 522.05 (213.62)    
4 months 544.99 (206.99) 528.74 (201.97)    
Folate food, μgd Trial entry 401.20 (161.35) 395.15 (160.90) 0.24 0.02 15.13 (2.14 to 28.12)
28 weeks 410.82 (161.38) 394.97 (161.04)    
36 weeks 402.80 (150.79) 388.02 (161.70)    
4 months 420.96 (164.11) 406.71 (156.54)    
  1. aValues are mean ± SD and treatment effects are differences in means (with 95% confidence interval and P-value) by time point estimated from a linear mixed effects model including treatment, time and treatment × time, adjusted for centre, parity and body mass index.
  2. bIncludes women who had a live birth, and who answered one or more questionnaires; excludes questionnaires with >25% missing responses, or where there was an unrealistic energy intake reported (<4,500 or >20,000 kJ).
  3. cWhere the treatment × time interaction was not statistically significant, it was dropped from the model.
  4. dValues are mean ± SD and treatment effects are differences in means (with 95% confidence interval and P-value) across all time points estimated from a linear mixed effects model including treatment and time, adjusted for centre, parity and BMI.