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Table 4 Healthy eating index: between treatment group comparison a

From: The effects of antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice for women who are overweight or obese on maternal diet and physical activity: the LIMIT randomised trial

Outcome Time point Lifestyle advice (n = 945)b Standard care (n = 928)b Adjusted treatment × time interactionP-valuec Adjusted treatment effect
      P 95% CI
HEI, range 0 to 100 Trial entry 72.11 (7.71) 72.80 (7.07) <0.0001 0.06 -0.67 (-1.37 to 0.03)
28 weeks 73.35 (6.62) 71.86 (7.01)   <0.0001 1.58 (0.89 to 2.27)
36 weeks 72.95 (6.82) 71.17 (7.69)   <0.0001 1.77 (1.01 to 2.53)
4 months 72.83 (7.56) 72.15 (7.47)   0.41 0.35 (-0.48 to 1.18)
Total fruit, range 0 to 5 Trial entry 4.50 (1.02) 4.48 (1.03) 0.003 0.567 0.03 (-0.07 to 0.13)
28 weeks 4.63 (0.89) 4.42 (1.11)   0.0001 0.20 (0.10 to 0.30)
36 weeks 4.58 (0.97) 4.34 (1.18)   <0.0001 0.24 (0.13 to 0.35)
4 months 4.27 (1.23) 4.11 (1.33)   0.07 0.14 (-0.01 to 0.28)
Whole fruit, range 0 to 5 Trial entry 4.56 (1.09) 4.57 (1.05) 0.0002 0.77 -0.01 (-0.12 to 0.09)
28 weeks 4.68 (0.94) 4.50 (1.15)   0.0003 0.19 (0.09 to 0.30)
36 weeks 4.64 (1.03) 4.42 (1.24)   <0.0001 0.24 (0.12 to 0.35)
4 months 4.43 (1.18) 4.35 (1.24)   0.30 0.07 (-0.06 to 0.21)
Total vegetables, range 0 to 5d Trial entry 4.86 (0.58) 4.88 (0.50) 0.06 0.12 0.03 (-0.01 to 0.06)
28 weeks 4.91 (0.44) 4.88 (0.48)    
36 weeks 4.88 (0.49) 4.81 (0.62)    
4 months 4.94 (0.31) 4.89 (0.45)    
Dark-green and orange Vegetables and legumes, range 0 to 5d Trial entry 4.76 (0.76) 4.72 (0.84) 0.12 0.0006 0.10 (0.04 to 0.16)
28 weeks 4.82 (0.64) 4.73 (0.78)    
36 weeks 4.76 (0.77) 4.64 (0.93)    
4 months 4.89 (0.46) 4.78 (0.75)    
Total grains, range 0 to 5d Trial entry 3.88 (0.93) 3.89 (0.91) 0.24 0.55 -0.02 (-0.09 to 0.05)
28 weeks 3.88 (0.91) 3.95 (0.88)    
36 weeks 3.93 (0.91) 3.92 (0.93)    
4 months 3.80 (1.00) 3.78 (1.04)    
Whole grains, range 0 to 5d Trial entry 0.71 (0.88) 0.71 (0.83) 0.23 0.14 0.05 (-0.02 to 0.11)
28 weeks 0.74 (0.86) 0.67 (0.83)    
36 weeks 0.82 (0.90) 0.71 (0.91)    
4 months 0.81 (0.87) 0.78 (0.88)    
Milk, range 0 to 10 Trial entry 6.54 (2.80) 6.98 (2.82) <0.0001 0.002 -0.42 (-0.69 to -0.16)
28 weeks 7.37 (2.61) 7.15 (2.70)   0.04 0.29 (0.01 to 0.56)
36 weeks 7.48 (2.49) 7.34 (2.69)   0.45 0.10 (-0.17 to 0.38)
4 months 7.23 (2.70) 7.01 (2.69)   0.28 0.17 (-0.14 to 0.48)
Meat and beans, range 0 to 10d Trial entry 9.59 (1.20) 9.61 (1.07) 0.24 0.67 0.02 (-0.06 to 0.10)
28 weeks 9.59 (1.16) 9.55 (1.16)    
36 weeks 9.60 (1.13) 9.46 (1.26)    
4 months 9.74 (0.96) 9.74 (0.99)    
Oils, range 0 to 10d Trial entry 5.48 (3.19) 5.45 (3.25) 0.24 0.15 0.18 (-0.07 to 0.42)
28 weeks 5.50 (3.17) 5.27 (3.18)    
36 weeks 5.42 (3.27) 4.99 (3.25)    
4 months 5.69 (3.18) 5.46 (3.26)    
Saturated fat, range 0 to 10d Trial entry 5.48 (3.00) 5.36 (2.96) 0.08 0.07 0.21 (-0.02 to 0.44)
28 weeks 5.31 (2.88) 4.91 (2.90)    
36 weeks 5.04 (3.04) 4.70 (3.02)    
4 months 5.01 (3.02) 4.97 (3.00)    
Sodium, range 0 to 10d Trial entry 6.10 (2.43) 6.22 (2.43) 0.77 0.34 -0.09 (-0.27 to 0.10)
28 weeks 6.28 (2.42) 6.27 (2.32)    
36 weeks 6.10 (2.44) 6.28 (2.38)    
4 months 5.80 (2.63) 5.91 (2.46)    
Calories from solid fats, alcohol and added sugar (SoFAAS), range 0 to 20d Trial entry 15.64 (3.79) 15.94 (3.60) 0.150 0.56 -0.08 (-0.33 to 0.18)
28 weeks 15.63 (3.24) 15.55 (3.45)    
36 weeks 15.69 (3.20) 15.57 (3.51)    
4 months 16.21 (3.33) 16.37 (3.22)    
  1. aValues are mean ± SD and treatment effects are differences in means (with 95% confidence interval and P-value) by time point estimated from a linear mixed effects model including treatment, time and treatment × time, adjusted for centre, parity and BMI.
  2. bIncludes women who had a live birth, and who answered one or more questionnaires; excludes questionnaires with >25% missing responses, or where there was an unrealistic energy intake reported (<4,500 or >20,000 kJ).
  3. cWhere the treatment × time interaction was not statistically significant, it was dropped from the model.
  4. dValues are mean ± SD and treatment effects are differences in means (with 95% confidence interval and P-value) across all time points estimated from a linear mixed effects model including treatment and time, adjusted for centre, parity and BMI.