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Table 2 Infant outcomes by treatment group

From: The effects of antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice for women who are overweight or obese on neonatal health outcomes: the LIMIT randomised trial

Outcome Lifestyle advice (n = 1075a) Standard care (n = 1067a) Unadjusted Adjusted
    Treatment effect (95% CI) P-value Treatment effect (95% CI) P-value
GA at birth, weeksb 39.29 ± 1.74 39.23 ± 2.07 0.06 (-0.10 to 0.23) 0.44 0.07 (-0.10 to 0.23) 0.42
Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes 22 (2.07) 22 (2.09) 0.99 (0.55 to 1.78) 0.98 0.99 (0.55 to 1.77) 0.97
Resuscitation required at birth 196 (18.23) 191 (17.89) 1.02 (0.85 to 1.22) 0.84 1.01 (0.85 to 1.21) 0.88
Birth weight, gb 3481 ± 554 3492 ± 613 -11.55 (-61.13 to 38.03) 0.65 -6.90 (-55.47 to 41.67) 0.78
Birth weight Z-scoreb 0.37 ± 1.03 0.43 ± 1.09 -0.06 (-0.15 to 0.03) 0.18 -0.05 (-0.14 to 0.03) 0.23
Birth length, cmb 49.84 ± 2.42 49.92 ± 2.84 -0.08 (-0.31 to 0.14) 0.48 -0.08 (-0.30 to 0.15) 0.51
Birth length Z-scoreb -0.26 ± 0.76 -0.18 ± 0.80 -0.07 (-0.14 to -0.01) 0.03 -0.07 (-0.14 to -0.01) 0.04
Birth head circumference, cmb 34.77 ± 1.60 34.77 ± 1.90 0.00 (-0.15 to 0.15) 0.96 0.01 (-0.14 to 0.16) 0.92
Birth head circumference Z-scoreb 0.21 ± 1.03 0.26 ± 1.09 -0.05 (-0.14 to 0.04) 0.31 -0.05 (-0.14 to 0.04) 0.32
Birth weight ≥4.5 kg 23 (2.15) 39 (3.69) 0.58 (0.35, 0.97) 0.04 0.59 (0.36, 0.98) 0 ± 04
Birth weight ≤2.5 kg 43 (4.03) 56 (5.29) 0.76 (0.51 to 1.13) 0.18 0.74 (0.50 to 1.09) 0.13
Ponderal index, kg/m3b 27.95 ± 2.85 27.82 ± 2.91 0.12 (-0.12 to 0.37) 0.33 0.12 (-0.12 to 0.36) 0.34
Predicted fat free mass, kgb 3.07 ± 0.38 3.08 ± 0.42 -0.01 (-0.04 to 0.02) 0.59 -0.01 (-0.04 to 0.03) 0.73
Admission to NICU ≥4 days 12 (1.12) 23 (2.18) 0.52 (0.26 to 1.03) 0.06 0.51 (0.26 to 1.02) 0.06
Admission to SCBU 388 (36.12) 382 (35.77) 1.01 (0.90 to 1.13) 0.87 1.00 (0.90 to 1.12) 1.00
Respiratory distress syndrome 13 (1.22) 27 (2.57) 0.47 (0.25 to 0.91) 0.03 0.47 (0.24 to 0.90) 0.02
Respiratory support 65 (6.09) 77 (7.20) 0.84 (0.61 to 1.16) 0.30 0.84 (0.61 to 1.15) 0.27
Moderate/severe respiratory disease 1 (0.09) 15 (1.42) N/A <0.001d N/A N/A
Discharged home on oxygen 1 (0.09) 3 (0.28) N/A 0.37d N/A N/A
Patent ductus arteriosus 2 (0.19) 5 (0.47) N/A 0.29d N/A N/A
Proven systemic infection 0 (0.00) 2 (0.19) N/A 0.25d N/A N/A
Retinopathy of prematurity 1 (0.09) 4 (0.38) N/A 0.22d N/A N/A
Necrotising enterocolitis 3 (0.28) 1 (0.09) N/A 0.62d N/A N/A
Neonatal encephalopathy 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) N/A N/A N/A N/A
Neonatal seizures 1 (0.09) 3 (0.28) N/A 0.37d N/A N/A
Postnatal length of stay infant, dayse 3.94 ± 7.26 4.41 ± 9.87 0.89 (0.82 to 0.97) 0.007 0.89 (0.82 to 0.97) 0.006
  1. NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; SCBU, special care baby unit.
  2. aIncludes all live-born infants.
  3. bValues are mean ± SD, and treatment effects are differences in means based on imputed data.
  4. cValues are n(%), and treatment effects are relative risks based on imputed data.
  5. eValues are mean ± SD, and treatment effects are ratios of means based on imputed data.
  6. d P-value derived Fisher's exact test based on available data.