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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of participants by Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) score, the EPIC cohort (1992 to 2010)

From: Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on colorectal cancer: a large European cohort study

Characteristics Healthy lifestyle index points  
  0 1 2 3 4 5
Participants, number (%) 2,783 (0.8) 20,865 (6.0) 66,110 (19.0) 113,171 (32.6) 106,518 (30.7) 37,790 (10.9)
Colon cancer, number of cases 28 188 526 816 602 209
Rectal cancer, number of cases 12 121 326 459 348 124
Colorectal cancer, number of cases 40 309 852 1275 950 333
Socio-demographic characteristics:       
Age, mean, SD 52.7 52.1 52.2 51.9 51.5 50.8
Men,% 58.5 51.0 42.9 34.5 28.3 29.6
University degree,% 21.4 22.8 22.9 23.6 24.1 25.5
Lifestyle factors:       
BMI, kg/m2median 28.1 27.4 26.7 25.6 24.5 23.5
Waist circumference, cm, median       
Men 101.0 100.0 98.0 95.0 90.5 87.3
Women 89.0 85.0 83.0 80.0 77.0 73.6
METs recreational and household activity 44.8 54.1 66.5 81.3 98.8 122.8
Never or former smokers,% - 2.0 13.4 33.1 37.0 14.3
Alcohol consumption, grams/day, median       
Men 46.0 37.2 25.5 13.8 9.5 7.5
Women 24.2 18.1 11.0 4.5 2.3 1.9
Dietary factors, grams/day, median       
Fibre 17.1 18.3 19.6 21.4 24.0 26.3
Fruits 88.4 113.2 146.6 195.1 256.6 287.1
Vegetables 107.3 120.4 136.3 165.6 216.4 245.7
Yoghurt 4.1 8.9 16.2 24.5 40.1 53.6
Nuts 0.66 0.69 0.82 0.82 1.60 2.33
Garlic 6.9 6.8 6.6 7.7 12.6 16.0
Red and processed meat 128.0 119.0 109.5 98.9 85.5 72.7
Fish 17.5 17.5 17.9 19.7 22.8 24.0
  1. BMI, body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in squared meters); EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; METs, metabolic equivalents of energy expenditure (MET)-hours per week per year; SD, standard deviation.