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Table 3 Hazard ratios of colorectal cancer in relation to individual lifestyle factors, the EPIC cohort (1992 to 2010)

From: Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on colorectal cancer: a large European cohort study

   Colon cancer Rectal cancer Colorectal cancer
Healthy lifestyle factor Index Cases, number Model 1aHR (95% CI) Model 2bHR (95% CI) Cases, number Model 1aHR (95% CI) Model 2bHR (95% CI) Cases, number Model 1aHR (95% CI) Model 2bHR (95% CI)
All           
Overweight and obesity 0 1,231 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 671 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 1,902 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 1,138 0.80 (0.73-0.87) 0.80 (0.74-0.87) 719 0.93 (0.84-1.03) 0.92 (0.82-1.03) 1,857 0.84 (0.79-0.90) 0.84 (0.79-0.90)
Physical activity 0 1,144 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 648 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 1,792 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 1,225 0.87 (0.80-0.95) 0.88 (0.81-0.96) 742 1.02 (0.91-1.14) 1.03 (0.92-1.15) 1,967 0.92 (0.86-0.99) 0.94 (0.87-1.00)
Smoking 0 550 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 378 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 928 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 1,819 0.90 (0.82-1.00) 0.91 (0.83-1.00) 1,012 0.82 (0.72-0.93) 0.84 (0.74-0.95) 2,831 0.87 (0.81-0.94) 0.88 (0.82-0.96)
Alcohol consumption 0 695 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 462 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 1,157 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 1,671 0.91 (0.83-0.99) 0.91 (0.83-1.00) 928 0.79 (0.71-0.89) 0.81 (0.72-0.91) 2,602 0.86 (0.80-0.93) 0.87 (0.81-0.94)
Diet quality 0 1,084 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 629 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 1,713 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 1,285 0.86 (0.79-0.94) 0.88 (0.81-0.96) 761 0.87 (0.78-0.98) 0.89 (0.79-1.01) 2,046 0.86 (0.81-0.93) 0.88 (0.83-0.95)
Men           
Overweight and obesity 0 602 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 393 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 995 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 427 0.73 (0.64-0.83) 0.74 (0.65-0.84) 335 0.89 (0.76-1.03) 0.90 (0.77-1.05) 762 0.79 (0.72-0.87) 0.80 (0.73-0.88)
Physical activity 0 515 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 360 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 875 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 514 0.90 (0.79-1.00) 0.91 (0.80-1.03) 368 0.92 (0.79-1.08) 0.93 (0.80-1.09) 882 1.09 (0.99-1.20) 1.08 (0.98-1.19)
Smoking 0 289 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 223 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 512 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 740 0.95 (0.82-1.09) 0.96 (0.83-1.10) 505 0.88 (0.75-1.04) 0.92 (0.78-1.08) 1,245 0.92 (0.83-1.02) 0.94 (0.97-1.00)
Alcohol consumption 0 377 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 287 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 664 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 652 0.83 (0.73.0.95) 0.85 (0.74-0.97) 441 0.74 (0.63-0.87) 0.76 (0.64-0.89) 1,093 0.79 (0.72-0.88) 0.81 (0.73-0.89)
Diet quality 0 451 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 342 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 793 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 578 0.88 (0.76-1.00) 0.89 (0.78-1.02) 386 0.78 (0.67-0.92) 0.80 (0.68-0.94) 964 0.84 (0.75-0.93) 0.85 (0.77-0.95)
Women           
Overweight and obesity 0 629 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 278 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 907 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 711 0.85 (0.76-0.96) 0.86 (0.77-0.96) 384 0.97 (0.82-1.14) 0.95 (0.81-1.12) 1,095 0.89 (0.81-0.98) 0.89 80.81-0.97)
Physical activity 0 629 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 288 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 917 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 711 0.85 (0.75-0.95) 0.86 (0.77-0.97) 374 1.16 (0.98-1.37) 1.17 (0.99-1.38) 1,085 0.94 (0.85-1.04) 0.95 (0.86-1.05)
Smoking 0 261 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 155 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 416 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 1,079 0.87 (0.76-1.01) 0.88 (0.77-1.02) 507 0.76 (0.63-0.92) 0.76 (0.63-0.93) 1,586 0.83 (0.74-0.93) 0.84 (0.75-0.94)
Alcohol consumption 0 318 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 175 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 493 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 1,022 0.99 (0.87-1.13) 0.99 (0.88-1.14) 487 0.90 (0.75-1.07) 0.91 (0.76-1.09) 1,509 0.96 (0.87-1.06) 0.96 (0.87-1.07)
Diet quality 0 633 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 287 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.) 920 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
  1 707 0.84 (0.75-0.95) 0.86 (0.77-0.97) 375 0.98 (0.83-1.17) 1.00 (0.84-1.18) 1,082 0.89 (0.81-0.98) 0.91 (0.82-1.00)
  1. aBase model stratified by EPIC study centre and adjusted for age, sex, education (none, primary school, technical/professional school). bMultivariable model stratified by EPIC study centre and adjusted for age, sex, education (none, primary school, technical/professional school, university degree) and after mutual adjustment for other lifestyle factors, including overweight and obesity, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet quality (binary variables). CI, confidence interval; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; HR, hazard ratio; PAR, population attributable fraction; Ref., reference.