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Table 1 Mean (SD) self-measured waist circumference and objectively measured waist circumference and their mean differences (95% CI) stratified by anthropometric, demographic and behavioural characteristics

From: Validity of self-measured waist circumference in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease

Categories n SMWC OMWC SMWC- OMWC mean (95%CI)a P-valueb
Mean SD Mean SD Mean Low High
Overall 617 102.6 10.1 96.6 9.7 6.0 6.4 5.6 <0.01b
Agec          
  Younger 309 103.9 10.6 97.4 9.8 6.4 6.9 5.9 0.02b
  Older 308 101.3 9.4 95.8 9.6 5.5 6.1 5.0
Education          
  Primary 201 103.5 11.2 96.9 11.1 6.6 7.3 5.9 0.03b
  Secondary 285 102.7 9.8 96.8 9.3 5.9 6.5 5.4
  College 128 100.8 8.7 95.6 8.2 5.2 6.0 4.4
Body mass indexd          
  Normal 84 93.7 6.1 87.3 6.0 6.4 7.5 5.3 0.56
  Overweight 333 100.3 7.6 94.5 7.3 5.8 6.3 5.3
  Obese 200 110.1 10.3 104.0 9.4 6.1 6.8 5.4
Dietary behavioure          
  Yes 47 99.3 9.1 94.1 9.1 5.2 6.6 3.8 0.23
  No 531 102.7 10.1 96.7 9.7 6.1 6.5 5.7
Smoking behaviourf          
  Yes 126 104.3 11.5 97.9 10.7 6.4 7.1 5.6 0.33
  No 487 102.1 9.7 96.2 9.4 5.9 6.3 5.5
Physical activityg          
  Yes 383 101.8 9.8 96.1 9.4 5.8 6.3 5.3 0.26
  No 230 103.8 10.6 97.4 10.3 6.4 7.0 5.8
Sedentary behaviourh          
  Yes 542 102.8 10.1 96.8 9.8 6.0 6.4 5.6 0.74
  No 69 100.4 10.0 94.5 9.0 5.8 6.9 4.7
  1. Abbreviations: OMWC, objectively measured waist circumference; SMWC, self-measured waist circumference.
  2. aDifference calculated as self-measured minus objectively WC values, note that negative and positive values indicates under and over -estimation, respectively.
  3. bSignificant differences (P < 0.05).
  4. cAge groups: younger ≤44.07 years and older >44.07 years.
  5. dBody mass index: normal <25.0 kg/m2, overweight≥25.0 to <29.9 kg/m2, obese ≥30.0 kg/m2.
  6. eDiet: Yes: meeting recommendations of at least two pieces of fruit and 200 g of vegetables intake per day; No: not meeting these recommendations.
  7. fSmoking behaviour: Yes: current smoker: No: not current smoker.
  8. gPhysical activity: Yes: meeting the national recommendations of being physically active (≥30 minutes moderate-intensity physical activity), No: not meeting these recommendations.
  9. hSedentary Behaviour: Yes: sedentary (≥2 hours per day activities with an energy expenditure of under 2 METs); No: not meeting these recommendations.