Patterns of AMA1 antibody cross-reactivity among children from Kenya and PNG. Each graph (A-E) shows antibody cross-reactivity between AMA1 alleles tested by competition ELISA in pooled serum from children from PNG and Kenya (at 2004 time-point). Each variant (A-E) was tested against four other AMA1 alleles and cross-reactivity was determined. The pattern of cross-reactivity for each allele was similar in both populations, and cross-reactivity was slightly higher in Kenyan children for all alleles (P = 0.017). Data shown here were extracted from the same datasets used in Figures 1 and 3. For each figure (A-E), the competing antigens used in experiments are those listed on the Y-axis. AMA1, apical membrane antigen 1; PNG, Papua New Guinea.