Evolutionary relationships among AMA1 sequences. (A) Relationships between 862 global isolates (269 haplotypes) and the 11 reference alleles used in this study (indicated in text). A median joining network with star contraction was drawn in Phylogenetic Network v 18.104.22.168 using default parameters. Node size indicates allele frequency and the geographical origin of sequences is indicated by different colors (key shown). The locations of 11 reference alleles used in this study are indicated throughout the network. (B) Evolutionary relationships among AMA1 sequences from the study populations and the 11 reference alleles. Blue, PNG (Madang Province); Red, Kenya (Kilifi District, Yellow (reference alleles). AMA1, apical membrane antigen 1; PNG, Papua New Guinea.