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Table 1 Characteristics of studies selected for analysis

From: Is chronic inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 cardioprotective and safe? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study Design Condition Treatment Dose and time Number of patients (PP) Mean age (SD) or age range
Aldashev AA, Thorax , 2005 [[26]] R, DB, PC HAPH S 25 mg x 3/die 9S versus 8P 61 (8)
100 mg x 3/die 12 weeks 5S versus 8P
Amin A, Congest Heart Fail , 2013 [[38]] R, DB, PC HFrEF S 25 mg x 2/die - >2 weeks 53S versus 51P S: 51.29 (14.80)
Then
50 mg x 3/die - >10 weeks P: 50.61 (4.18)
Andersen MJ, Circulation , 2013 [[10]] R, DB, PC Diastolic Dysfunction after MI S 40 mg x 3/die 9 weeks 34S versus 33P S: 63 (8)
P: 62 (7)
Badesch, J Rheumatol , 2007 [[27]] R, DB, PC PAH-CTD S 20 mg x 3/die 21 S S: 52 (15)
40 mg x 3/die 20 S 50 (15)
80 mg x 3/die 19 S 54 (14)
12 weeks 22 P P: 56 (14)
Behling A, J Cardiac Fail , 2008 [[23]] R, DB, PC CHF S 50 mg x 3/die 11S versus 8P S: 45 (12)
4 weeks P: 53 (11)
Bharani A, Indian Heart J , 2007 [[28]] R, DB, PC PAH due to congenital left to right shunt T 20 mg x 3 8 T - P 28 (9.38)
CO (wo:2 wks) 4 weeks
Bocchio M, Atherosclerosis , 2008 [[33]] R, DB, PC ED VRF T 20 mg every other day 18 T versus 18P T: 52.05 (8.98)
12 weeks P: 49.61 (12.68)
Galiè N, NEJM , 2005 [[2]] R, DB, PC PAH S 20 mg x 3/die 65 S S: 47 (14)
40 mg x 3/die 63 S 51 (15)
80 mg x 3/die 65 S 48 (18)
12 weeks 65 P P: 49 (17)
Giannetta E, Circulation , 2012 [[11]] R, DB, PC Diabetic Cardiomyopathy S 25 + 25+ 50 mg/die 29S versus 25P S: 60.7 (7.6)
3 months P: 60.2 (8.3)
Goldberg DJ, Circulation , 2011 [[36]] R, DB, PC CHD after Fontan Operation S 20 mg x 3/die 27 S - P 14.9 (5.1)
CO (wo:6 wks) 6 weeks
Goldberg, DJ Pediatr Cardiol , 2012 [[37]] R, DB, PC CHD after Fontan Operation S 20 mg x 3/die 27 S - P 14.9 (5.1)
CO (wo:6 wks) 6 weeks
Groeneweg G, BMC Muscoloskeletan disorders , 2008 [[20]] R, DB, PC CRPS T 10 mg/die - >4 weeks 12 T versus12P T: 39.8 (13.1)
Then P: 36.5 (10.6)
20 mg/die - >8 weeks
Guazzi M, J Am Coll Cardiol , 2007 [[24]] R, DB, PC CHF S 50 mg x 3/die 23S versus 23P S: 62 (3)
6 months P: 63 (4)
Guazzi M, Circulation , 2011 [[25]] R, DB, PC HFpEF with PAH S 50 mg x 3/die 22S versus 22P 53-79
12 months
Guazzi M, Circ Heart Fail, 2011 [[12]] R, DB, PC Systolic HF S 50 mg x 3/die 23S versus 22P S: 60 (4)
12 months P: 61 (4)
Guazzi M, Europ J Heart Failure, 2012 [[39]] R, DB, PC EOB in HF S 50 mg x 3/die 16S versus 16P S: 66 (8)
12 months P: 68 (6)
Jing, Z.C, Am J Resp Crit Care Med , 2011 [[30]] R, DB, PC PAH V 5 mg/die - >4 weeks 43 V versus 16P S: 32 (12)
then
5 mg x 2/die - >8 weeks P: 29 (8)
Lewis GD, Circulation , 2007 [[13]] R, DB, PC Systolic HF and secondary PAH S 25 to 75 mg x 3/die 17S versus 17P S: 54 (4)
12 weeks P: 62 (3)
Lewis GD, Circ Heart Fail, 2008 [[31]] R, DB, PC Systolic HF and secondary PAH S 25 to 75 mg x 3/die 15S versus 15P S: 54 (4)
12 weeks P: 62 (3)
Rosano G MC, European Urology , 2005 [[34]] R, DB, PC ED VRF T 20 mg every other day 16 T versus 16P 65.4 (6.3)
4 weeks
Redfield MM, JAMA, 2013 [[14]] R, DB, PC HFpEF S 20 mg x 3/die - >12 weeks 49S versus 47Pa 62-77
then 60 mg x 3/die -> 45S versus 58Pb
12 weeks 95S versus 94Pc
Sastry BKS, JACC, 2004 [[32]] R, DB, PC PAH S 25 to 100 mg x 3/die 20 S - P 16-55
CO (wo:0) 6 weeks
Suntharalingam J, Chest, 2008 [[40]] R, DB, PC CTEPH S 40 mg x 3/die 8S versus 10P S: 49.9 (13.1)
12 weeks P: 60 (14.4)
Van AH, J Sex Med , 2005 [[35]] R, DB, PC ED V 5 to 20 mg/die 175 V versus 175P V:22-76
12 weeks P: 22-78
  1. apatients for left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and end-diastolic volume index (EDVi); bpatients for systolic blood pressure (SBP); cpatients for N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). CHD: congenital heart disease; CHF: chronic heart failure; CO: crossover; CRPS: cold complex regional pain syndrome; CTEPH: chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; DB: double-blind; ED VRF: erectile dysfunction vascular risk factors; EOB: exercise oscillatory breathing; HAPH: high altitude pulmonary hypertension; HF: heart failure; HFpEF: heart failure preserved ejection fraction; HFrEF: heart failure reduced ejection fraction; MI: myocardial infarction; P: placebo; PAH: pulmonary arterial hypertension; PAH-CTD: pulmonary arterial hypertension-connective tissue diseases; PC: placebo-controlled; PP: per protocol analysis; R: randomized; S: sildenafil; T: tadalafil; V: vardenafil; wks: weeks; wo: washout.