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Table 2 Results of main analysis and subgroup or sensitivity analyses

From: Is chronic inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 cardioprotective and safe? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Main analysis LVMi g/m2 EDVi ml/m2 IVS Mm VTD mm Cardiac index L/min/m2 EF% E/A ratio NTpro-BNP pg/ml HR bpm MAP mmHg SBP mmHg DBP mmHg SVRi dynes m2/sec cm-5 FMD%
WMD -4.022 0.433 -0.966 -2.666 0.304 3.561 0.053 -161.9 -0.848 -0.413 0.616 -0.763 -88.34 3.306
Lower 95% CI -10.137 -6.49 -2.230 -7.145 0.202 1.786 -0.275 -351.5 -2.398 -3.023 -1.113 -2.174 -255.75 0.530
Upper 95% CI 2.093 7.357 0.298 1.814 0.406 5.335 0.380 27.6 0.702 2.196 2.345 0.648 79.08 6.082
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---
Number 306 262 98 99 520 286 116 407 977 355 828 791 232 168
P value 0.197 0.902 0.134 0.243 <0.001 <0.001 0.753 0.094 0.283 0.756 0.490 0.289 0.301 0.020
I-square 96% 94% 95% 90% 0.0% 84% 93% 82% 56% 71% 49% 52% 89% 99%
References [10]-[12],[14],[25] [10]-[12],[14] [11],[25] [11],[12] [2],[10],[11],[25],[30],[32],[40] [10]-[12],[24],[25],[31],[35] [12],[25],[37] [10]-[14],[40] [2],[10],[11],[20],[24],[26],[28],[30],[31],[35],[37],[39] [10],[23],[25],[30],[31],[38],[39] [10]-[12],[14],[20],[24],[25],[28],[35],[36],[38] [10]-[12],[20],[24]-[26],[28],[35],[36],[38] [10],[25],[30],[31],[39] [11],[24],[33],[34]
Subgroup/ Sensitivity a LVMi g/m 2 EDVi ml/m 2 IVS Mm VTD mm Cardiac index L/min/m 2 EF % E/A ratio NTpro-BNP Pg/ml HR bpm MAP mmHg SBP mmHg DBP mmHg SVRi dynes m 2 /sec cm -5 FMD%
LVH -12.207     0.082 4.382 0.053 -486.7 0.829 1.156 0.135 -1.936 55.63 /
Lower 95% CI -18.846 / / / -0.176 2.059 -0.275 -712,8 -4.526 -2.398 -2.598 -5.309 1.438 -277.86  
Upper 95% CI -5.568     0.341 6.705 0.380 -260,7 6.185 4.710 2.867 ---- 389.12  
--- ----     ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----   ----  
Number 89     62 119 116 97 57 74 72 116 74  
P value <0.001 / / / 0.534 <0.001 0.753 <0.001 0.761 0.524 0.923 0.261 0.744 /
I-square 88% / / / 0.0% 79% 93% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 66% 88% /
Non-LVH 1.404 4.999a    0.354 0.973   -11.20 0.691   0.613 -0.635 / /
Lower 95% CI -1.908 3.286 / / 0.165 -1.329 / -160.8 -2.330 / -5.161 -9.278 8.008   
Upper 95% CI 4.717 6.711    0.544 3.274   138.4 3.713   6.388 ----   
---- ---- ----    ---- ----   ---- ----   ----    
Number 217 217    121 121   310 121   224 121   
P value 0.406 <0.001 / / <0.001 0.408 / 0.883 0.654 / 0.835 0.886 / /
I-square 80% 0.0% / / 0.0% 0.0% / 75% 0.0% / 79% 91% / /
Left heart disease -4.022 0.433 -0.966 -2.666 0.298 3.561 0.053 -149.7a 0.651 -0.951 0.079a -1.352 -70.97 2.686
Lower 95% CI -10.137 2.093 -6.49 7.357 -2.230 0.298 -7.145 1.814 0.134 1.786 5.335 -0.275 -352.4 -2.781 4.084 -4.377 2.474 -2.610 2.768 -3.932 1.227 -273.90 -2.635 8.008
Upper 95% CI      0.461   0.380 53.0      131.95  
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Number 306 262 98 99 165 286 116 389 229 252 419 360 173 100
P value 0.197 0.902 0.134 0.243 <0.001 <0.001 0.753 0.148 0.710 0.586 0.954 0.304 0.493 0.322
I-square 96% 94% 95% 90% 0.0% 84% 93% 84% 81% 75% 66% 75% 91% 99%
Subgroup/ Sensitivity a LVMi g/m 2 EDVi ml/m 2 IVS Mm VTD mm Cardiac index L/min/m 2 EF% E/A ratio NTpro-BNP Pg/ml HR bpm MAP mmHg SBP mmHg DBP mmHg SVRi dynes m 2 /sec cm -5 FMD%
Right heart disease      0.309     -2.700    0.867   
Lower 95% CI / / / / 0.178 / / / -4.554 / / -2.637 4.372 / /
Upper 95% CI      0.439     -0.847      
----      ----     ----    ----   
Number      355     347    30   
P value / / / / <0.001 / / / 0.004 / / 0.628 / /
I-square / / / / 0.0% / / / 0.0% / / 0.0% / /
Non-cardiac disease          -0.109   0.107 0.073   3.953
Lower 95% CI / / / / / / / / -2.723 / -2.287 -1.515 1.660 / 1.240
Upper 95% CI          2.504   2.502    6.667
----          ----   ---- ----   ----
Number          374   374 374   68
P value / / / / / / / / 0.935 / 0.930 0.928 / 0.004
I-square / / / / / / / / 0.0% / 0.0% 0.0% / 96%
Age <60 yrs      0.284 3.187 0.173a    1.940 -0.008 -0.292 -130.44  
Lower 95% CI      0.163 -0.716 -0.150    -0.824 -2.023 -1.631 1.047 -234.44 /
Upper 95% CI / / / / 0.405 7.089 0.496 / / 4.704 2.006 ---- -26.43  
----      ---- ---- ----    ---- ---- 513 ----  
Number      399 74 71    212 513   89  
P value / / / / 0.000 0.110 0.295 / / 0.196 0.993 0.669 0.014 /
I-square / / / / 0.0% 80% 90% / / 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% /
Age - 60 yrs -2.683a 0.433   -2.666 0.354 2.582   -40.199a -0.491 -2.349 0.663 -2.048 -57.48 3.558a
Lower 95% CI -9.169 -6.49 / -7.145 1.814 0.165 -1.074 / -196.023 -3.826 -5.851 -2.067 -4.741 0.646 -349.32 0.306
Upper 95% CI 3.804 7.357   ---- 0.544 6.237   115.624 2.844 1.153 3.392   234.36 6.809
---- ---- ----    ---- ----   ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Nymber 262 262   99 121 167   355 221 143 315 234 143 132
P value 0.418 0.902 / 0.243 <0.001 0.166 / 0.613 0.773 0.189 0.634 0.136 0.699 0.032
I-square 95% 94% / 90% 0.0% 90% / 72% 79% 83% 72.% 71% 94% 99%
Subgroup/ Sensitivity a LVMi g/m 2 EDVi ml/m 2 IVS Mm VTD mm Cardiac index L/min/m 2 EF% E/A ratio NTpro-BNP Pg/ml HR bpm MAP mmHg SBP mmHg DBP mmHg SVRi dynes m 2 /sec cm -5 FMD%
Sildenafil -4.022 0.433 -0.966 -2.666 0.289a 3.561 0.053 -161.9 -0.943 -0.880a 0.248 -0.995 -70.9 2.7
Lower 95% CI -10.137 -6.49 -2.230 -7.145 1.814 0.179 1.786 -0.275 -351.5 -2.959 -3.642 -2.138 -2.852 0.863 -273.9 -2.6
Upper 95% CI 2.093 7.357 0.298   0.399 5.335 0.380 27.6 1.073 1.882 2.634   131.9 8.0
--- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Number 306 262 98 99 461 286 116 407 536 296 446 409 173 100
P value 0.197 0.902 0.134 0.243 <0.001 <0.001 0.753 0.094 0.359 0.532 0.839 0.294 0.493 0.322
I-square 96% 94% 95% 90% 0.0% 84% 93% 82% 0.0% 72% 60% 63% 91% /
Tadalafil          -1.033   4.659 1.101   3.953
Lower 95% CI          -7.141   -2.529   / 1.240
Upper 95% CI / / / / / / / / 5.075 / 11.846 -4.717 6.920   6.667
---          ----   ---- ----   ----
Number          32   32 32   68
P value / / / / / / / / 0.740 / 0.204 0.711 / 0.004
I-square / / / / / / / / 0.0% / 0.0% 0.0% / /
Vardenafil          -0.408      
Lower 95% CI          -3.746      
Upper 95% CI / / / / / / / / 2.931 / / / / /
---          ----      
Number          409      
P value / / / / / / / / 0.811 / / / / /
I-square / / / / / / / / 0.0% / / / / /
  1. aSensitivity analysis. CI: confidence interval; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; EDVi: end-diastolic volume index; EF: ejection fraction; E/A ratio: the ratio of the early (E) to late (A) ventricular filling velocities; FMD: flow mediated dilation; HR: heart rate; IVS: interventricular septum; LVH: left ventricular hypertrophy; LVMi: left ventricular mass index; MAP: mean arterial blood pressure; NTpro-BNP: N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide; SBP: systolic blood pressure; SVRi: systemic vascular resistance index; VTD: ventricular transverse diameter; WMD: weighted mean difference. Bold indicates when “p” are statistically significant. Italics indicates non significant resluts.