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Table 2 Biomarkers for studies of environmental enteropathy

From: Environmental enteropathy and malnutrition: do we know enough to intervene?

Biomarker Indicative of
Reg1 (fecal) Intestinal epithelial health
IGF-1 (plasma) Growth and proliferation
Calprotectin (fecal) Enteric inflammation
Myeloperoxidase (fecal) Enteric inflammation
Neopterin (fecal) Enteric inflammation
Alpha-1 anti-trypsin (fecal) Intestinal barrier disruption
Lipopolysaccharide (plasma) Intestinal barrier disruption
Lactulose:mannitol (urine) Intestinal barrier disruption
sCD14 (plasma) Systemic inflammation
CRP Systemic inflammation
ferritin Systemic inflammation
IL-6 Systemic inflammation
IL-1b Systemic inflammation
  1. CRP, c-reactive protein; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IL, interleukin.