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Table 2 Prevalence of diabetes, visual impairment and stroke in people with dementia

From: Comorbidity and dementia: a scoping review of the literature

Study and country Study type Dementia/CI Control/comparison Eligibility criteria Recruited from Number whole sample Number dementia/CI Diabetes (%) Stroke (%) VI (%) Notes
Barnett [26] UK (Scotland) Cross-sectional Dementia NA Alive, permanently registered with a participating practice Primary care -national dataset 1751841 11139 13.3 18.8 3.8 VI is blindness/low vision
Doraiswamy [2] Cross-sectional Dementia NA Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, 50 or over Community health care sites 679 679 - - - 61% had three or more comorbidities, 30% had vascular or heart disease. Sample included mixture of community dwelling and long-term care
Feil [36] USA Longitudinal cross sectional CI No CI Geographically defined, 65 and over Population derived sample 7482 1774 26 34 -  
Heun [46] UK Retrospective case control Dementia No dementia Diagnosis of AD, 70+, in-patient care for at least 24 hours Hospital in-patients 72878 634 6 3 1 VI is glaucoma. Diagnosis of diabetes less common in those with AD than controls RR 0.7 (95% CI 0.5 to 0.9). No significant difference in prevalence of ischemic stroke RR 1.3 95% CI 0.9 to 2.0, or glaucoma RR 2.0 (1.0 to 4.3)
Jara [82] UK Retrospective cohort Dementia No dementia 64 and over, at least 24 months continuous enrolment, no cataract diagnosis at baseline Primary care -national dataset 650325 8124 - - - Lower rate of any cataract in AD group compared to controls HR 0.52 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.58)
Löppönen [55] Finland Cross-sectional Dementia NA Geographically defined, 65 and over Population based 1260 112 16 24 29 PWD less likely to be diagnosed with glaucoma OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.86), no difference in rates of cataract p =0.287
Lyketsos [56] USA Case-control Dementia/CI No dementia/CI Geographically defined, 65 and over Population based 695 374 20 16 - Stroke more common in people with dementia p <0.001
McCormick [58] USA Case-control Dementia/CI No dementia/CI Aged 60 and over, members of HMO, geographically defined Population derived (from HMO database) 154 154 6 3a 10 Visual problems less common in PWD (10% versus 24%)
Rait [64] UK Cohort Dementia No dementia 60 and over with first code for dementia during study period, at least six months data Primary care - national dataset 135174 22529 14 29a - No difference in prevalence of diabetes (13.9% versus 14.5%) but cerebrovascular disease more common in people with dementia (29.3% versus 13.3%)
Sakurai [65] Japan Cross sectional Dementia NA Dementia or MCI Memory clinic 160 160 19 - - Dementia and CI
Schubert [5] USA Cross-sectional Dementia No dementia 65 and older, seen primary care physician within two years. Excluded nursing home residents, non-English speaking Primary care 3013 107 39 10 - No significant difference in prevalence of DM (P =0.19) or stroke (P =0.89) between those with and without dementia
Stephan [72] UK Cross-sectional MCI No MCI 65 and over Population based 13004 1486 7 19 -  
Uhlmann[75] USA Case control Dementia No dementia 65 and over, English speaking, eighth-grade or higher education, ability to complete audiometric evaluation Adult medicine clinic 174 87 not given not given - Prevalence of VI significantly higher in cases than controls (OR 2 95% CI 1.2-3.4).
Zamrini [80] USA Case control Dementia NA Probable AD, black or white (white participants matched non randomly to black participants) Memory clinic database 334 334 18 9 10 Includes all eye diseases
Zekry [81] Switzerland Cohort Dementia No dementia 75 and over. Excluded: terminal illness, disorders interfering with psychometric assessment Hospital in-patients 349 188 19 22 - MCI + dementia
  1. aCerebrovascular disease; - = not given. CI, cognitive impairment; MCI, mild cognitive impairment; PWD, people with dementia; VI, visual impairment.