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Table 2 Changes in patient distress due to breathlessness (primary outcome), mastery of breathlessness, anxiety and depression, by trial arm

From: Is a specialist breathlessness service more effective and cost-effective for patients with advanced cancer and their carers than standard care? Findings of a mixed-method randomised controlled trial

Trial arms and outcomes t1aMean (SD) t3 Mean (SD) t5 Mean (SD) Difference in mean t3 adjusted for baseline (I minus C) With 95% confidence interval P-value
Control arm (waiting-list) Baseline Completed control Completed intervention    
Intervention arm (fast-track) Baseline Completed intervention Post-intervention
Primary outcome: NRS distress due to breathlessness (0 to 10) b
Control arm (waiting-list) 4.65 (2.99) 4.42 (3.01) 2.58 (1.82) -1.29 (-2.57, -0.005) P = 0.049
Intervention arm (fast-track) 5.11 (2.78) 3.43 (2.95) 3.65 (3.07)
Key secondary outcomes:
CRQ c Mastery (1 to 7)
Control arm (waiting-list) 4.71 (1.27) 4.72 (1.21) 4.72 (1.12) 0.20 (-0.35, 0.76) P = 0.47
Intervention arm (fast-track) 4.53 (1.13) 4.81 (1.29) 4.72 (1.18)
HADS b anxiety (0 to 21)
Control arm (waiting-list) 7.88 (3.41) 7.85 (3.59) 7.61 (3.96) 0.017 (-1.52, 1.56) P = 0.98
Intervention arm (fast-track) 7.00 (4.08) 7.07 (5.05) 6.77 (3.52)
HADS b depression (0 to 21)
Control arm (waiting-list) 5.88 (2.94) 6.23 (2.89) 6.13 (2.80) -0.30 (-1.79, 1.20) P = 0.69
Intervention arm (fast-track) 6.38 (2.17) 6.22 (3.36) 6.27 (3.12)
No. of respondents 52-54 53-54 45-47
  1. aFor those with a t3 score; bhigh score is worse; chigh score is better. CRQ, Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score; NRS, numerical rating scale; SD, standard deviation.