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Table 1 Established risk factors assessed in GxE interaction studies

From: Candidate gene-environment interactions in breast cancer

Established risk factor Traviset al. [[3]] Milneet al. [[4]] Campaet al. [[6]] Nickelset al. [[5]] Barrdahlet al. [[7]] Schoepset al. [[12]]
Age at menarche (years) X X X X X X
Age at first birth (years) X X   Xa X  
Parous (% and/or number of live births) X X X Xa X X
Breast fed (% in parous women) X    X   
Menopausal status (% post-menopausal) X      
Age at natural menopause (years) X   X   X  
Use of oral contraceptives (yes/no or duration)     X X X
Use of HRT (yes/no or duration) X   X X   Xb
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) X X X X X Xc
Height (m) X   X X X X
Alcohol consumption (g per day) X   X X X X
Smoking (pack-years)    X X X  
Family history of BC    X   X X
Physical activity (hours per week)     X   
  1. aThe ten established risk factors reported by Nickels et al. (Table 2) counts parity and age at first live birth as a single factor; bthe 10 established risk factors reported by Schoeps et al. (Table 2) counts combined estrogen-progesterone and estrogen only post-menopausal hormone therapy as two factors; cbody mass index in pre- and post-menopausal women as two factors. BC, breast cancer; HRT, hormone replacement therapy.