Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline age-adjusted characteristics of participants in the three cohorts according to quintile of total dairy consumption a

From: Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis

  HPFS (1986) NHS I (1980) NHS II (1991)
Characteristics Q1 (number = 8,638) Q3 (number = 8,823) Q5 (number = 8,323) Q1 (number = 13,456) Q3 (number = 13,397) Q5 (number = 13,433) Q1 (number = 17,225) Q3 (number = 17,147) Q5 (number = 17,213)
Total dairy intake (servings/day) 0.6 (0.4 to 0.7)b 1.6 (1.4 to 1.7) 3.8 (3.4 to 4.6) 0.9 (0.7 to 1.1) 1.9 (1.8 to 2.0) 3.4 (3.1 to 3.8) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.1) 2.0 (1.7 to 2.3) 3.9 (3.4 to 4.8)
Age (years) 52.6(9.1)c 52.9(9.5) 53.4(9.7) 46.4 (7.1) 46.1(7.1) 46.3(7.3) 36.8(4.6) 36.0(4.7) 35.2(4.6)
Physical activity (MET-hours/week) 19.9(29.1) 21.6(28.0) 22.1(29.9) 12.3(17.5) 14.0(19.4) 15.4 (21.1) 19.0(27.2) 21.3(26.9) 22.7(28.6)
BMI (kg/m2) 24.8(4.9) 25.0(4.8) 25.0(4.9) 24.0(4.3) 24.3(4.3) 24.3(4.4) 24.4(5.3) 24.6(5.3) 24.5(5.1)
Race, white (%) 91.7 96.0 97.0 95.8 98.5 98.9 93.0 97.6 97.9
Current smoker (%) 10.3 8.6 10.5 34.6 25.9 24.0 15.6 10.7 10.8
Hypertension (%) 21.0 19.6 17.4 16.4 14.7 13.7 6.5 6.0 5.2
High cholesterol (%) 12.6 10.0 8.2 6.1 4.7 4.8 16.0 13.6 12.6
Family history of diabetes (%) 23.1 24.7 23.9 28.2 28.3 28.6 34.9 34.1 32.3
Postmenopausal (%) NA NA NA 32.1 31.2 31.3 3.55 2.99 2.72
Current menopausal hormone use (%)d NA NA NA 21.6 22.1 21.6 83.1 80.9 83.8
Current oral conceptive use (%) NA NA NA NA NA NA 11.49 12.06 9.14
Total energy (Kcal/day) 1,657(523) 1,957(546) 2,425(626) 1,433(364) 1,699(363) 2,013(403) 1,443(475) 1,791(469) 2,180(514)
Alcohol (g/day) 12.3(16.6) 11.5(15.0) 10.4(15.0) 7.1(11.0) 6.1 (8.8) 5.2(8.0) 3.2(6.6) 3.4(6.0) 3.1(6.0)
Cereal fiber (g/day) 5.6(4.0) 6.0(3.8) 5.6(3.5) 4.5 (2.1) 5.0 (2.1) 4.8 (1.9) 5.4 (3.1) 5.8(3.0) 5.4(2.8)
Glycemic load 127(30) 125(24) 120(230) 103 (20) 103 (16) 101 (15) 127 (26) 121 (20) 115 (18)
Polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio 0.68(0.26) 0.56(0.17) 0.47(0.15) 0.59(0.18) 0.56 (0.14) 0.51 (0.13) 0.60(0.19) 0.52(0.13) 0.45(0.12)
Trans fat (% of total energy) 2.8 (1.3) 2.9 (1.1) 2.8 (1.0) 1.8 (0.6) 1.7 (0.5) 1.7 (0.4) 1.8(0.7) 1.6(0.6) 1.5(0.5)
Fruit and vegetables (servings/day) 4.9(2.8) 5.4(2.6) 5.8(2.9) 4.3 (1.9) 5.2 (1.9) 5.9 (2.1) 4.1(2.7) 5.2(2.7) 6.0(3.1)
Red and processed meat intake (servings/day) 0.99(0.79) 1.16(0.79) 1.33(0.90) 1.02(0.60) 1.01 (0.51) 1.07 (0.56) 1.03(0.67) 1.17(0.68) 1.24(0.72)
Nuts intake (servings/day) 0.38(0.54) 0.46(0.59) 0.58(0.73) 0.13 (0.18) 0.16(0.19) 0.19 (0.21) 0.07(0.20) 0.09(0.19) 0.10(0.22)
SSB intake (servings/day) 0.34(0.64) 0.36(0.58) 0.40(0.62) 0.33 (0.57) 0.27 (0.42) 0.29 (0.42) 0.54(0.99) 0.45(0.80) 0.45(0.77)
Coffee intake (servings/day) 1.87(1.78) 1.92(1.75) 2.05(1.90) 2.08(1.57) 2.14 (1.42) 2.21 (1.50) 1.43 (1.71) 1.57(1.64) 1.70(1.74)
  1. aData were age standardized except for age and dairy intake. bMedian; interquartile range in parentheses (all such values). cMean SD (all such values). dCurrent menopausal hormone users among postmenopausal women. HPFS, Health Professionals Follow-Up Study; METs, metabolic equivalent; NA, not available; NHS, Nurses’ Health Study; Q, quintile.