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Table 2 HRs (95% CI) of type 2 diabetes risk according to quintile of total dairy intake in HPFS, NHS I and NHS II

From: Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis

  Frequency of consumption P -trend b HR (95% CI) for one serving/day
  Q1 a Q2 a Q3 a Q4 a Q5 a
HPFS        
Daily servings (0.64, <0.86)c (1.18, 0.86 to 1.34) (1.64, 1.35 to 1.90) (2.32, 1.91, 2.99) (3.59, ≥3.00)   
Cases/person-years 660/161,017 698/157,956 654/159,981 669/160.184 683/159,307   
Age-, BMI-and energy-adjustedd 1.0 1.06 (0.95, 1.18) 0.98 (0.87, 1.09) 0.97 (0.87, 1.09) 0.97 (0.87, 1.09) 0.34 0.98 (0.95, 1.01)
Adjusted for non-dietary factorsd 1.0 1.10 (0.98, 1.22) 1.02 (0.92, 1.14) 1.00 (0.89, 1.12) 1.01 (0.90, 1.14) 0.60 0.99 (0.96, 1.02)
Adjusted for dietary factorsd 1.0 1.08 (0.97, 1.21) 1.01 (0.91, 1.13) 0.99 (0.88, 1.11) 0.99 (0.88, 1.11) 0.38 0.98 (0.95, 1.01)
NHS        
Daily servings (0.91, <1.20) (1.45, 1.20 to 1.66) (1.91, 1.67 to 2.15) (2.45, 2.16, 2.83) (3.37, ≥2.84)   
Cases/person-years 1,596/350,963 1,575/350,493 1,531/351,353 1,584/350,639 1,555/351,058   
Age-, BMI-and energy-adjusted 1.00 0.93 (0.87, 1.00) 0.88 (0.82, 0.95) 0.90 (0.84, 0.97) 0.90 (0.83, 0.97) 0.01 0.97 (0.94, 0.99)
Adjusted for non-dietary factors 1.00 0.97 (0.90, 1.04) 0.93 (0.86, 1.00) 0.94 (0.88, 1.02) 0.94 (0.87, 1.02) 0.13 0.98 (0.95, 1.00)
Adjusted for dietary factors 1.00 1.00 (0.93, 1.07) 0.98 (0.91, 1.06) 1.03 (0.95, 1.11) 1.05 (0.97, 1.14) 0.15 1.02 (0.99, 1.05)
NHS II        
Daily servings (0.79, <1.06) (1.40, 1.06 to 1.61) (1.96, 1.62 to 2.24) (2.71, 2.25, 3.02) (3.85, ≥3.03)   
Cases/person-years 856/283,968 866/285,509 802/286,713 731/286,865 696/288,188   
Age-, BMI-and energy-adjusted 1.00 1.00 (0.91, 1.10) 0.92 (0.83, 1.01) 0.85 (0.77, 0.95) 0.83 (0.75, 0.92) <0.001 0.93 (0.90, 0.96)
Adjusted for non-dietary factors 1.00 1.05 (0.96, 1.16) 1.01 (0.91, 1.11) 0.95 (0.86, 1.06) 0.94 (0.84, 1.04) 0.05 0.96 (0.94, 0.99)
Adjusted for dietary factors 1.00 1.08 (0.98, 1.18) 1.04 (0.94, 1.15) 0.99 (0.89, 1.10) 1.00 (0.89, 1.11) 0.46 0.98 (0.95, 1.01)
Pooled analysis        
Age-, BMI-and energy-adjusted 1.00 0.98 (0.93, 1.03) 0.91 (0.86, 0.96) 0.90 (0.86, 0.95) 0.90 (0.85, 0.95) <0.001e 0.96 (0.94, 0.98)e
Adjusted for non-dietary factors 1.00 1.02 (0.97, 1.07) 0.97 (0.92, 1.02) 0.96 (0.91, 1.01) 0.95 (0.90, 1.01) 0.02 0.98 (0.96, 0.99)
Adjusted for dietary factors 1.00 1.04 (0.98, 1.09) 1.00 (0.95, 1.06) 1.01 (0.96, 1.07) 1.02 (0.96, 1.08) 0.99 0.99 (0.98, 1.01)
  1. aQ is quintile; b P-trend was calculated by assigning median values to each quintile and was treated as continuous variable; cquintile median and cut-points in parentheses (all such values); dmodel was adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (eight categories), total energy intake (quintiles). Model 2 was additionally adjusted for race, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, menopausal status and menopausal hormone use (NHS I and II participants only), oral contraceptive use (NHS II participants only), diabetes family history, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia. Model 3 was additionally adjusted for trans-fat intake, glycemic load, red and processed meat intake, nuts intake, SSB intake, and coffee intake. e P for heterogeneity <0.05. BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; HPFS, Health Professionals Follow-Up Study; HRs, hazard ratios; NHS, Nurses’ Health Study; Q, quintile.