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Table 3 Relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes among men according to low-fat versus high-fat dairy food intake

From: Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis

  Dairy intake (daily servings)   HR (95% CI) for one serving/day
Variable Q1 a Q2 a Q3 a Q4 a Q5 a P -trend b
  Low-fat dairy intake   
HPFS        
Daily servings (0.07, <0.14)c (0.43, 0.14 to 0.49) (0.86, 0.50 to 0.99) (1.28, 1.00 to 1.49) (2.57, ≥1.50)   
Cases/person-years 709/154,402 681/161,216 666/163,722 663/159,761 645/159,343   
Age-, BMI-and energy-adjustedd 1.00 0.93 (0.84, 1.04) 0.89 (0.80, 0.99) 0.92 (0.82, 1.02) 0.88 (0.79, 0.99) 0.06 0.97 (0.93, 1.00)
Unadjusted for dietary factorsd 1.00 0.95 (0.85, 1.06) 0.92 (0.83, 1.02) 0.94 (0.84, 1.05) 0.90 (0.80, 1.00) 0.09 0.97 (0.93, 1.00)
Adjusted for dietary factorsd 1.00 0.97 (0.87, 1.07) 0.95 (0.85, 1.06) 0.98 (0.88, 1.09) 0.95 (0.84, 1.06) 0.45 0.98 (0.95, 1.02)
NHS        
Daily servings (0.23, <0.42) (0.64, 0.43 to 0.82) (1.03, 0.83 to 1.21) (1.50, 1.22 to 1.85) (2.42, ≥1.86)   
Cases/person-years 1,652/351,416 1,504/350,553 1,620/350,912 1,479/350,718 1,586/350,907   
Age-, BMI-and energy-adjusted 1.00 0.89 (0.83, 0.96) 0.93 (0.87, 1.00) 0.84 (0.78, 0.90) 0.90 (0.84, 0.96) 0.004 0.96 (0.94, 0.99)
Unadjusted for dietary factors 1.00 0.93 (0.87, 1.00) 0.97 (0.91, 1.04) 0.89 (0.83, 0.96) 0.93 (0.87, 1.00) 0.06 0.98 (0.95, 1.00)
Adjusted for dietary factors 1.00 0.97 (0.91, 1.04) 1.03 (0.96, 1.10) 0.98 (0.91, 1.06) 1.05 (0.97, 1.14) 0.17 1.02 (0.99, 1.06)
NHS II        
Daily servings (0.21, <0.34) (0.67, 0.35 to 0.87) (1.10, 0.88 to 1.21) (1.68, 1.22 to 2.01) (2.75, >2.02)   
Cases/person-years 848/283,696 871/286,724 789/287,700 749/286,955 694/286,167   
Age-, BMI-and energy-adjusted 1.00 1.00 (0.91, 1.10) 0.90 (0.82, 0.99) 0.88 (0.79, 0.97) 0.82 (0.74, 0.91) <0.001 0.92 (0.89, 0.96)
Unadjusted for dietary factors 1.00 1.05 (0.95, 1.15) 0.99 (0.89, 1.09) 0.96 (0.87, 1.06) 0.90 (0.81, 1.00) 0.01 0.95 (0.92, 0.99)
Adjusted for dietary factors 1.00 1.07 (0.97, 1.17) 1.03 (0.93, 1.13) 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) 0.95 (0.85, 1.06) 0.13 0.97 (0.93, 1.01)
Pooled        
Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 1.00 (0.95, 1.05) 1.01 (0.96, 1.06) 0.99 (0.94, 1.04) 1.00 (0.94, 1.05) 0.72 1.00 (0.98, 1.02)e
  High-fat dairy intake   
HPFS        
Daily servings (0.16, <0.28) (0.42, 0.28 to 0.49) (0.64, 0.50 to 0.72) (0.97, 0.73 to 1.14) (1.78, >1.15)   
Cases/person-years 621/159,021 615/161,726 695/159,337 694/159,123 739/159,238   
Age-, BMI-and energy-adjusted 1.00 0.92 (0.82, 1.03) 1.02 (0.92, 1.14) 0.97 (0.86, 1.08) 1.04 (0.93, 1.16) 0.24 1.01 (0.96, 1.05)
Unadjusted for dietary factors 1.00 0.95 (0.85, 1.06) 1.08 (0.96, 1.20) 1.03 (0.92, 1.15) 1.09 (0.98, 1.23) 0.05 1.02 (0.97, 1.06)
Adjusted for dietary factors 1.00 0.90 (0.80, 1.01) 0.99 (0.88, 1.11) 0.94 (0.84, 1.05) 0.97 (0.86, 1.09) 0.87 0.98 (0.94, 1.03)
NHS        
Daily servings (0.21, <0.31) (0.42, 0.32 to 0.50) (0.62, 0.51 to 0.73) (0.89, 0.74 to 1.10) (1.53, >1.11)   
Cases/person-years 1,620/351,081 1,557/350,717 1,530/350,871 1,551/350,817 1,583/351,020   
Age-, BMI-and energy-adjusted 1.00 0.92 (0.86, 0.98) 0.89 (0.83, 0.96) 0.89 (0.82, 0.95) 0.96 (0.89, 1.04) 0.83 1.01 (0.97, 1.05)
Unadjusted for dietary factors 1.00 0.95 (0.88, 1.02) 0.93 (0.86, 1.00) 0.92 (0.86, 0.99) 0.99 (0.92, 1.07) 0.80 1.01 (0.97, 1.05)
Adjusted for dietary factors 1.00 0.95 (0.89, 1.02) 0.93 (0.86, 1.00) 0.92 (0.85, 0.99) 1.01 (0.93, 1.09) 0.51 1.03 (0.99, 1.07)
NHS II        
Daily servings (0.20, <0.28) (0.43, 0.29 to 0.52) (0.64, 0.53 to 0.77) (0.98, 0.78 to 1.17) (1.71, >1.18)   
Cases/person-years 792/289,456 775/274,246 843/293,070 811/286,254 730/288,217   
Age-, BMI-and energy-adjusted 1.00 0.95 (0.86, 1.05) 1.01 (0.91, 1.11) 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) 0.94 (0.85, 1.05) 0.40 0.96 (0.92, 1.01)
Unadjusted for dietary factors 1.00 0.98 (0.89, 1.09) 1.07 (0.97, 1.19) 1.09 (0.98, 1.20) 1.02 (0.92, 1.14) 0.49 0.99 (0.94, 1.03)
Adjusted for dietary factors 1.00 0.97 (0.88, 1.07) 1.05 (0.95, 1.16) 1.07 (0.96, 1.18) 1.03 (0.92, 1.15) 0.35 1.00 (0.95, 1.05)
Pooled        
Multivariate Model 1.00 0.94 (0.90, 0.99) 0.97 (0.92, 1.02) 0.96 (0.91, 1.01) 1.00 (0.95, 1.06) 0.30 1.01 (0.98, 1.03)
  1. aQ is quintile; b P-trend was calculated by assigning median values to each quintile and was treated as continuous variable; cquintile median and cut-points in parentheses (all such values); dModel 1 was adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (eight categories), total energy intake (quintiles). Model 2 was additionally adjusted for race, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, menopausal status and menopausal hormone use (NHS I and II participants only), oral contraceptive use (NHS II participants only), diabetes family history, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia. Model 3 was additionally adjusted for trans-fat intake, glycemic load, red and processed meat intake, nuts intake, SSB intake, and coffee intake. e P for heterogeneity <0.05. BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; HPFS, Health Professionals Follow-up Study; NHS, Nurses Health Study.