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Table 4 Multivariate relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes among men and women according to intakes of dairy foods

From: Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis

  Dairy intake (servings) P for trend a HR (95% CI) for one serving/day
Variable Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4
Skim/low-fat milk <1/week 1 to 4/week 5/week to 1.4/day ≥1.5/day   
HPFS 0/weekc 2.3/week 0.9/day 2.5/day   
Cases/person-years 800/187,455 878/211,190 1,095/263,155 591/136,644   
Multivariate modelb 1.00 1.01 (0.91, 1.11) 1.05 (0.96, 1.16) 1.05 (0.94, 1.18) 0.35 0.99 (0.96, 1.03)
NHS 0.2/week 2.6/week 1.0/day 2.4/day   
Cases/person-years 1,434/324,753 2,022/478,343 2,932/652,108 1,453/299,303   
Multivariate model 1.00 1.00 (0.93, 1.08) 1.05 (0.98, 1.12) 1.13 (1.04, 1.23) <0.001 1.06 (1.02, 1.09)
NHS II 0.2/week 3.0/week 1.0/day 2.5/day   
Cases/person-years 629/222,580 1,181/414,562 1,490/521.220 651/272,879   
Multivariate model 1.00 1.05 (0.95, 1.16) 1.15 (1.04, 1.27) 1.02 (0.91, 1.15) 0.92 0.97 (0.93, 1.01)
Pooled       
Multivariate model 1.00 1.02 (0.97, 1.07) 1.07 (1.02, 1.12) 1.08 (1.02, 1.15) 0.006d 1.02 (0.99, 1.04)d
Cheese intake <1/week 1 to 4/week 5/week to 1.4/day ≥1.5/day   
HPFS 0.6/week 2.6/week 0.8/day 1.8/day   
Cases/person-years 407/110,338 1,658/415,482 1,167/250,081 132/22,544   
Multivariate Model 1.00 1.07 (0.96, 1.20) 1.16 (1.02, 1.31) 1.31 (1.07, 1.62) 0.002 1.07 (0.99, 1.15)
NHS 0.7/week 2.6/week 0.8/day 2.3/day   
Cases/person-years 850/166,664 4,223/990,161 2,623/568,288 145/29,393   
Multivariate Model 1.00 0.95 (0.90, 0.99) 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 1.06 (0.90, 1.26) 0.09 1.09 (1.02, 1.17)
NHS II 0.7/week 2.6/week 0.8/day 1.7/day   
Cases/person-years 364/118,132 1,964/751,355 1,499/520,280 124/41,475   
Multivariate Model 1.00 0.90 (0.80, 1.02) 0.97 (0.85, 1.10) 0.89 (0.72, 1.10) 0.80 1.04 (0.96, 1.12)
Pooled       
Multivariate Model 1.00 0.96 (0.92, 1.00)d 1.01 (0.98, 1.05)d 1.08 (0.96, 1.20)d 0.004 1.07 (1.03, 1.11)
Yogurt <1/month 1 to 3/month 1/week ≥2/week   
HPFS 0/month 2.1/month 1.0/week 3.0/week   
Cases/person-years 1,894/413,496 669/160,207 485/134,656 316/90,085   
Multivariate model 1.00 0.97 (0.88, 1.06) 0.89 (0.80, 0.99) 0.95 (0.84, 1.08) 0.30 0.85 (0.68, 1.06)
NHS 0/month 1.8/month 1.2/week 2.9/week   
Cases/person-years 3,118/608,342 1,762/360,994 1,930/476,985 1,031/308,184   
Multivariate model 1.00 1.02 (0.96, 1.08) 0.91 (0.85, 0.97) 0.84 (0.78, 0.91) <0.001 0.75 (0.65, 0.86)
NHS II 0/month 2.1/month 1.0/week 2.7/week   
Cases/person-years 1,153/354,086 867/299,194 1,174/438,017 757/339,945   
Multivariate model 1.00 1.00 (0.91, 1.09) 1.00 (0.91, 1.09) 0.90 (0.81, 1.00) 0.02 0.94 (0.80, 1.10)
Pooled       
Multivariate model 1.00 1.00 (0.96, 1.05) 0.93 (0.89, 0.97) 0.88 (0.83, 0.93) <0.001 0.83 (0.75, 0.92)
Whole milk <1/month 1 to 3/month 1/week ≥2/week   
HPFS 0/month 2.1/month 1.5/week 5.2/week   
Cases/person-years 2,492/606,198 323/70,991 215/51,858 334/69,398   
Multivariate model 1.00 1.05 (0.93, 1.18) 0.96 (0.83, 1.11) 1.11 (0.98, 1.25) 0.13 1.07 (0.98, 1.17)
NHS 0/month 1.5/month 1.05/week 3.5/week   
Cases/person-years 4,736/107,7815 959/207,604 1,091/245,503 1,055/223,583   
Multivariate model 1.00 1.01 (0.94, 1.09) 0.99 (0.93, 1.06) 1.08 (1.00, 1.15) 0.05 1.14 (1.06, 1.23)
NHS II 0/month 2.1/month 1.5/week 4.7/week   
Cases/person-years 3,373/122,3599 242/84,815 190/66,854 146/55,973   
Multivariate model 1.00 0.96 (0.84, 1.09) 1.04 (0.90, 1.21) 1.03 (0.87, 1.22) 0.65 0.98 (0.83, 1.14)
Pooled       
Multivariate model 1.00 1.01 (0.96, 1.07) 1.00 (0.94, 1.05) 1.08 (1.02, 1.14) 0.02 1.10 (1.04, 1.16)
Ice Cream <1/month 1 to 3/month 1/week ≥2/week   
HPFS 0/month 2.1/month 1.0/week 3.0/week   
Cases/person-years 778/165,934 1,262/287,954 851/218,100 473/126,457   
Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 0.83 (0.75, 0.91) 0.68 (0.62, 0.76) 0.63 (0.56, 0.71) <0.001 0.84 (0.71, 0.99)
NHS 0.6/month 1.8/month 1.1/week 2.8/week   
Cases/person-years 1,282/286,271 2,822/626,515 2,518/570,309 1,219/271,411   
Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 0.90 (0.84, 0.96) 0.83 (0.78, 0.89) 0.79 (0.72, 0.86) <0.001 0.71 (0.62, 0.82)
NHS II 0/month 2.1/month 1.1/week 3.0/week   
Cases/person-years 1,185/436,526 1,679/598,547 830/306,473 257/89,696   
Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 0.88 (0.82, 0.95) 0.77 (0.70, 0.84) 0.79 (0.69, 0.91) <0.001 0.90 (0.73, 1.12)
Pooled       
Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 0.87 (0.84, 0.91) 0.78 (0.74, 0.82)d 0.74 (0.70, 0.79)d <0.001d 0.78 (0.71, 0.86)
Cream <1/month 1 to 3/month 1/week ≥2/week   
HPFS 0/month 1.5/month 1.0/week 4.5/week   
Cases/person-years 2,145/501,934 509/127,177 261/66,686 449/102,648   
Multivariate model 1.00 0.95 (0.86, 1.05) 0.94 (0.82, 1.07) 0.98 (0.88, 1.09) 0.84 0.94 (0.87, 1.02)
NHS 0/month 1.8/month 1.1/week 4.8/week   
Cases/person-years 4,271/822,910 1,257/269,337 820/178,495 956/212,976   
Multivariate model 1.00 0.96 (0.90, 1.03) 0.92 (0.85, 0.99) 0.99 (0.92, 1.07) 0.92 1.01 (0.95, 1.07)
NHS II 0/month 1.5/month 0.7/week 3.5/week   
Cases/person-years 1,703/590,798 874/305,399 618/215,329 756/319,716   
Multivariate model 1.00 1.00 (0.92, 1.09) 1.02 (0.93, 1.13) 1.04 (0.94, 1.14) 0.46 1.02 (0.95, 1.09)
Pooled       
Multivariate model 1.00 0.97 (0.93, 1.02) 0.95 (0.90, 1.01) 1.00 (0.95, 1.05) 0.88 0.99 (0.95, 1.03)
Sherbet <1/month 1-3/month 1/week ≥2/week   
HPFS 0/month 1.8/month 1.0/week 2.4/week   
Cases/person-years 1,386/325,655 1,050/251,524 558/136,755 370/84,511   
Multivariate model 1.00 1.01 (0.93, 1.10) 1.05 (0.94, 1.17) 1.09 (0.97, 1.23) 0.13 0.98 (0.80, 1.21)
NHS 0.1/month 1.8/month 1.1/week 2.8/week   
Cases/person-years 3,052/609,546 2,081/402,796 1,576/335,068 595/136,309   
Multivariate model 1.00 1.06 (1.00, 1.13) 1.02 (0.95, 1.09) 1.00 (0.91, 1.10) 0.79 0.96 (0.82, 1.12)
NHS II 0/month 2.1/month 1.3/week 3.0/week   
Cases/person-years 1,292/501,292 1,413/499,003 946/321,704 300/109,243   
Multivariate model 1.00 1.03 (0.95, 1.11) 1.00 (0.92, 1.10) 0.93 (0.81, 1.06) 0.24 0.94 (0.78, 1.14)
Pooled       
Multivariate model 1.00 1.04 (1.00, 1.09) 1.02 (0.97, 1.07) 1.01 (0.94, 1.07) 0.88 0.96 (0.87, 1.07)
  1. a P-trend was calculated by assigning median values to each quintile and was treated as continuous variable; bmultivariate model was adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (eight categories), total energy intake (quintiles), race, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, menopausal status and menopausal hormone use (NHS I and II participants only), oral contraceptive use (NHS II participants only), diabetes family history, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, trans-fat intake, glycemic load, red and processed meat intake, nuts intake, SSB intake, and coffee intake, and other dairy types for individual dairy types; ccategory median intake (all such values); d P for heterogeneity <0.05. CI, confidence interval; HPFS, Health Professionals Follow-up Study; HR, hazard ratio; NHS, Nurses Health Study.