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Table 5 Multivariate relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes among men and women according to specific dairy foods using different methods of updating diets

From: Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis

  Dairy Intake (servings) P for trend a HR (95% CI) for one serving/day
Variable Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4
Skim/low-fat milk <1/week 1 to 4/week 5/week to 1.4/day ≥1.5/day   
Direct updateb 1.00 1.11 (1.05, 1.17) 1.16 (1.10, 1.22) 1.19 (1.12, 1.26) <0.001 1.02 (1.00, 1.05)
Stop updating CVD and cancer 1.00 1.02 (0.97, 1.07) 1.07 (1.02, 1.12) 1.08 (1.02, 1.15) 0.006 1.02 (0.99, 1.04)
Stop updating + HTHCc 1.00 0.94 (0.90, 0.99) 0.97 (0.93, 1.01) 1.02 (0.97, 1.07) 0.25 1.01 (0.99, 1.03)
Cheese intake <1/week 1 to 4/week 5/week to 1.4/day ≥1.5/day   
Direct update 1.00 0.97 (0.93, 1.01) 1.07 (1.03, 1.12) 1.19 (1.06, 1.33) <0.001 1.10 (1.05, 1.14)
Stop updating CVD and cancer 1.00 0.96 (0.92, 1.00) 1.01 (0.98, 1.05) 1.08 (0.96, 1.20) 0.004 1.07 (1.03, 1.11)
Stop updating + HTHC 1.00 0.96 (0.92, 1.00) 1.00 (0.98, 1.03) 1.02 (0.92, 1.13) 0.41 1.03 (0.99, 1.07)
Yogurt <1/month 1 to 3/month 1/week ≥2/week   
Direct update 1.00 1.01 (0.97, 1.06) 0.96 (0.92, 1.01) 0.91 (0.86, 0.96) <0.001 0.83 (0.76, 0.92)
Stop updating CVD and cancer 1.00 1.00 (0.96, 1.05) 0.93 (0.89, 0.97) 0.88 (0.83, 0.93) <0.001 0.83 (0.75, 0.92)
Stop updating + HTHC 1.00 0.97 (0.93, 1.02) 0.92 (0.88, 0.97) 0.87 (0.82, 0.91) <0.001 0.86 (0.78, 0.94)
Ice cream <1/month 1 to 3/month 1/week ≥2/week   
Direct update 1.00 0.85 (0.82, 0.89) 0.77 (0.73, 0.81) 0.68 (0.63, 0.72) <0.001 0.73 (0.66, 0.81)
Stop updating CVD and cancer 1.00 0.87 (0.84, 0.91) 0.78 (0.74, 0.82) 0.74 (0.70, 0.79) <0.001 0.78 (0.71, 0.86)
Stop updating + HTHC 1.00 0.96 (0.92, 1.00) 0.89 (0.85, 0.94) 0.89 (0.84, 0.94) <0.001 0.89 (0.83, 0.96)
Whole milk <1/month 1 to 3/month 1/week ≥2/week   
Direct update 1.00 1.03 (0.98, 1.10) 0.99 (0.94, 1.05) 1.12 (1.05, 1.19) <0.001 1.10 (1.03, 1.17)
Stop updating CVD and cancer 1.00 1.01 (0.96, 1.07) 1.00 (0.94, 1.05) 1.08 (1.02, 1.14) 0.02 1.10 (1.04, 1.16)
Stop updating + HTHC 1.00 0.96 (0.90, 1.01) 1.04 (0.98, 1.11) 1.03 (0.98, 1.08) 0.15 1.03 (0.99, 1.07)
  1. a P-trend was calculated by assigning median values to each quintile and was treated as continuous variable; bdirect update: cumulative averages of dairy intakes were calculated without stopping updating diets. All multivariate models were adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (eight categories), total energy intake (quintiles), smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, menopausal status, race, diabetes family history, baseline hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, trans-fat intake, glycemic load, red and processed meat intake, nuts intake, SSB intake, and coffee intake, and other dairy types for individual dairy types; cHTHC: hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HR, hazard ratio; SSB, sugar-sweetened beverages.