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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Elevated risk of stillbirth in males: systematic review and meta-analysis of more than 30 million births

First author Location, year [reference] Study population and design Stillbirth definition Inclusion criteria
Rasmussen Norway, 1967-1998 [14] Population-based retrospective cohort study Unexplained antepartum fetal death defined as death before labour without known fetal, placental, or maternal pathology All singleton births with at least 28 weeks of completed gestation
Gadow Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela, 1982-1986 [15] Hospital-based retrospective cohort study Death at ≥20 weeks of gestation and weight ≥500 g All births, live or dead, weighing 500 g or more occurring in 102 participating hospitals distributed in 11 countries
Xu Northern Finland, 1996 Population-based retrospective birth cohort study Death at >28 weeks of gestation All singleton births with at least 28 weeks of completed gestation and a birth weight of at least 1,000 g
Northern Finland, 1985-86
Qingdao, China, 1992 [16]
Smith Scotland,1980-1996 [17] Population-based retrospective cohort study Death at ≥28 weeks of gestation and weight >500 g All singleton first births weighing more than 500 g delivered between 28 and 43 weeks gestation in Scotland in 1980-1996
Petridou Greece, 1989-1991 [18] Population-based case-control study Death at ≥28 weeks of gestation All reported stillbirths within the National Statistical Service of Greece database between the study years with gestational age greater than or equal to 28 weeks
Kesmodel Aarhus, Denmark, 1989-1996 [19] Hospital-based retrospective cohort study Death at ≥28 weeks of gestation Danish women with singleton pregnancies who did not have an induced abortion and who provided information on alcohol intake while receiving routine antenatal care in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark, between September 1989 and August 1996
Efkarpidis Nottingham, UK, 1991-1997 [20] Hospital-based case-control study Fetal deaths diagnosed by ultrasound at ≥24 weeks of gestation All singleton stillbirths excluding any <24 weeks gestation, at the Nottingham City Hospital between the study period formed the cases which were compared to a control group of pregnancies (n =499) delivered during the same time period, from same geographic population, selected using random allocation by computer
Nielsen Tamil Nadu, India, 1995 [21] Community-based prospective observational study Not defined All births within six months from the day of survey to Tamil speaking mothers residing in the survey area for more than two days and were not mentally retarded
Aliyu Missouri, USA, 1, 1989-2005 [22] Population-based retrospective cohort study Death at ≥20 weeks gestation Singleton births to mothers diagnosed with placental abruption within gestational age range of 20 to 42 weeks
Aliyu Missouri, USA, 2, 1989-2005 [23] Population-based retrospective cohort study Death at ≥20 weeks gestation Singleton births to mothers diagnosed with preeclampsia or eclampsia within the gestational age range of 20 to 42 weeks.
Engel Newcastle, Australia, 1995-1999 [24] Hospital-based retrospective cohort study Not clearly defined. Based on the plot and results within the manuscript, stillbirths considered as death >20 weeks of gestation All cases of singleton pregnancies for women aged 13 to 47 years at obstetric unit of John Hunter Hospital
Wen Qingyuan, China, 1997-1998 [25] Hospital-based retrospective study Intrapartum fetal deaths at ≥20 weeks gestation or ≥500 g All hospital-born (participating hospitals (n =18)) registered births between the study period
Sutan Scotland, 1994-2003 [26] Population-based retrospective cohort study Unexplained antepartum stillbirth defined as deaths occurring before labour with no evident fetal, maternal, or placental abnormality sufficient to be considered as the cause of death All singleton, pregnancies occurring at 20 completed weeks of gestation and more or occurring after the fetus reached a body mass of 200 g or more
Ingemarsson Sweden, 1999-2000 [27] Population-based retrospective study Death at ≥28 weeks gestation All pregnancies registered in the national medical birth registry with a gestational duration of at least 28 completed weeks or less if the infant was alive at birth
Mohsin New South Wales, Australia, 1998-2002 [28] Population-based retrospective cohort study Death at ≥20 weeks and weight ≥400 g All live births and stillbirths with at least 20 weeks gestation or with a birth weight of 400 g or more
Hadar Petach Tikva, Israel, 1995-2007 [11] Hospital-based retrospective cohort study Death at >20 weeks of gestation or death when weight >500 g if gestational age unknown All cases of stillbirths and overall deliveries during the study period
MacDorman USA, 2003 [29] Population-based retrospective study Death at ≥20 weeks of gestation All births in the year 2003 with 20 weeks of gestation or more
Yoonhee Ghana, 2003-2008 [30] Population-based cohort study Death at ≥28 weeks of gestation All pregnancies from 1st July 2003 to 30th September 2008 in seven contiguous rural districts
MacDorman USA, 2004 [31] Population-based retrospective study Death at ≥20 weeks of gestation All births in the year 2004 with 20 weeks of gestation or more
MacDorman USA, 2005 [32] Population-based retrospective study Death at ≥20 weeks of gestation All births in the year 2005 with 20 weeks of gestation or more
Mutihir Nigeria, 2006-2007 [33] Hospital-based prospective observational study Death at ≥28 weeks of gestation All births delivered at the maternity unit of Jos University teaching Hospital between Jan 2006 and April 2007
National Statistics (Office of) England and Wales, 1990-2010 Population-based retrospective cohort study Death at >24 weeks of gestation (or prior to 1993, death at >28 weeks of gestation) Summary data on live and stillbirths by each year, published by The Office of National Statistics, UK