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Table 3 Pooled crude and adjusted odd ratios (OR) for influenza-related outcomes during influenza-season and off-season in vaccinated vs. non-vaccinated end-stage renal disease participants

From: Influenza vaccination in patients with end-stage renal disease: systematic review and assessment of quality of evidence related to vaccine efficacy, effectiveness, and safety

Outcome Author [Ref] Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Off-season adjusted OR (95% CI) Risk of bias
Mortality      
All-cause mortality     
  Bond et al.1 [25] 0.79 (0.72–0.87) 0.73 (0.67–0.81)2 0.90 (0.77–1.10)2 Unclear
  Gilbertson3 [24] 0.77 (0.65–0.90)4   High
  McGrath [26] 0.77 (0.76–0.78)5 0.71 (0.70–0.72)5 0.45 (0.41–0.50)6 High
  Wang [23] 0.88 (0.73–1.07)7 0.49 (0.41–0.59)7 High
  Pooled estimate 0.77 (0.75–0.80), I2 = 10% 0.68 (0.61–0.76), I2 = 83%
Cardiac death #      
  Gilbertson3 [24] 0.84 (0.71–0.98)4 High
Infectious death §     
  Gilbertson3 [24] 0.83 (0.65–1.05)4 High
Hospitalization      
All-cause hospitalization     
  Gilbertson3 [24] 0.95 (0.85–1.07)4   High
  Wang [23] 1.11 (0.96–1.28)7 0.80 (0.69–0.94)7 High
  Pooled estimate 0.88 (0.74–1.04), I2 = 70%
Hospitalization due to influenza or pneumonia    
  Gilbertson3 [24] 0.90 (0.70–1.16)4   High
  McGrath [26] 0.90 (0.87–0.92)5 0.84 (0.82–0.84)5 0.74 (0.64–0.85)6 High
  Slinin [27] 0.93 (0.86–1.01) High
  Wang [23] 1.30 (1.08–1.56)7 0.77 (0.64–0.93)7 High
  Pooled estimate 1.07 (0.75–1.53), I2 = 93% 0.86 (0.80–0.93), I2 = 58%  
Hospitalization due to bacteremia, viremia, or septicemia     
  Gilbertson3 [24] 0.73 (0.32–1.68)4 High
Hospitalization due to respiratory infection     
  Gilbertson3 [24] 0.87 (0.69–1.09)4 High
ICU admission      
  Wang [23] 0.38 (0.27–0.53)7 0.19 (0.14–0.27)7 High
Other outcomes      
Influenza-like illness      
  McGrath [26] 0.93 (0.91–0.95)5 0.88 (0.86–0.90)5 0.77 (0.68–0.88)6 High
  1. OR, odds ratio; ICU, intensive care unit.
  2. #Cardiac death, defined according to cause of death reported on the ESRD death notification form (myocardial infarction, pericarditis, atherosclerotic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, valvular heart disease, pulmonary edema).
  3. #Infectious death, defined according to cause of death reported on the ESRD death notification form (septicemia, pulmonary infection, viral infection, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, other viral hepatitis, fungal peritonitis, other infections).
  4. 1OR were also reported for those who additionally received pneumococcal vaccine; however, for the purpose of this study these patients were not considered.
  5. 2Off-season estimates in months June–August.
  6. 3Only patients on peritoneal dialysis.
  7. 4Point estimates of two influenza seasons were pooled first.
  8. 5Point estimates of four seasons were pooled first.
  9. 6Point estimates of four pre-influenza-seasons (defined as 10% of isolates positive for influenza) were pooled first.
  10. 7Crude/Adjusted incidence rate ratios.
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