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Table 3 Clinical predictors of transfusion in children with admission Hb ≥5 g/dL

From: Anaemia and blood transfusion in African children presenting to hospital with severe febrile illness

   Univariable analyses 1 Multivariable analyses (n = 1,962)
Variable Number in univariate model HR (95% CI) P value 2 HR (95% CI) P value 2
Updated (most recent) haemoglobin (per 1 g/dL increase)   0.46 (0.41–0.52) <0.001
Haemoglobin at admission (per 1 g/dL increase)   0.84 (0.74–0.95) 0.005
Severe pallor 2,076 3.21 (2.47–4.19) <0.001 3.18 (2.42–4.19) <0.001
Jaundice (clinical) 2,079 1.57 (1.30–1.89) <0.001 1.27 (0.97–1.68) 0.08
Haemoglobinuria 2,078 1.69 (1.28–2.21) <0.001
P. falciparum malaria 2,072 1.42 (1.13–1.80) 0.003
Weak pulse volume 2,080 1.37 (1.10–1.70) 0.005
Severe tachycardia 2,079 0.88 (0.71–1.10) 0.26 0.80 (0.63–1.00) 0.054
Capillary refill time ≥3 s 2,079 1.58 (1.27–1.97) <0.001 1.59 (1.24–2.03) 0.001
Temperature gradient 2,080 1.30 (1.07–1.58) 0.007
Respiratory distress 2,072 1.23 (0.96–1.58) 0.09
Indrawing 2,080 1.24 (1.02–1.51) 0.04 1.30 (1.01–1.69) 0.04
Deep breathing 2,080 1.24 (1.07–1.44) 0.005
Dehydration 2,078 1.27 (0.93–1.74) 0.14 1.33 (0.95–1.85) 0.09
Lactate at admission (per 1 mmol/L increase) 1,970 1.09 (1.07–1.17) <0.001 1.08 (1.05–1.10) <0.001
Oxygen saturation (per 1% increase) 2,047 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 0.91
Consciousness level 2,078   0.22
Alert   1 (ref)  
Prostration   1.26 (0.97–1.65) 0.09
Coma   1.22 (0.88–1.68) 0.24
Site 2,080   <0.001   <0.001
Mbale, Uganda   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
Kilifi, Kenya   0.44 (0.27–0.71) 0.001 0.38 (0.21–0.68) 0.001
Mulago, Uganda   0.91 (0.71–1.16) 0.44 0.98 (0.70–1.40) 0.93
Soroti, Uganda   1.18 (0.91–1.54) 0.21 1.39 (1.00–1.96) 0.05
Lacor, Uganda   0.63 (0.44–0.88) 0.008 0.71 (0.46–1.11) 0.13
Teule, Tanzania   1.35 (0.90–2.05) 0.15 1.56 (0.96–2.54) 0.08
  1. 1All models adjusted for baseline haemoglobin, most recent haemoglobin, and randomisation arm.
  2. 2P value for Likelihood ratio test overall or Wald test for categories.
  3. Bacteraemia was not included in the model as only 1,071 children had a blood culture.