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Table 2 Characteristics of the non-frail population at baseline, by adherence to the dietary patterns

From: Major dietary patterns and risk of frailty in older adults: a prospective cohort study

  Prudent pattern Westernized pattern
  Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3 P value Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3 P value
n 620 627 625   624 625 623  
Number of frailty components, mean (SE) 0.3 (0.1) 0.3 (0.1) 0.2 (0.1) <0.01 0.2 (0.1) 0.3 (0.1) 0.3 (0.1) <0.01
Sex, women , % 51.1 51.8 51.8 0.53 51.6 51.5 51.5 0.55
Age, years, mean (SE) 70.1 (0.3) 68.4 (0.3) 67.6 (0.3) <0.01 69.2 (0.3) 68.7 (0.3) 68.2 (0.3) 0.02
Educational level, %         
  ≤Primary 56.7 48.4 56.4 <0.01 51.7 56.3 53.6 <0.01
  Secondary 22.9 27.4 24.8   24.2 25.2 25.7  
  University 20.4 24.2 18.8   24.2 18.5 20.7  
Occupational social class, %         
  I (Professionals, managers, proprietors and clerical workers) 61.9 66.0 63.0 0.04 66.7 60.5 63.7 0.07
  II (Self-employed farm workers) 2.1 2.7 4.4   2.7 3.4 3.1  
  III (Skilled and unskilled manual workers) 34.5 30.2 31.5   29.7 35.0 31.4  
  IV (Paid farm workers) 1.5 1.1 1.1   0.9 1.1 1.8  
Tobacco, %         
  Never smoker 61.6 59.1 60.3 <0.01 63.9 60.9 56.1 <0.01
  Former smoker 25.5 29.4 30.4   29.6 26.4 29.2  
  Current smoker 12.9 11.5 9.3   6.5 12.7 14.6  
Body mass index, kg/m2, %         
  <25 19.5 18.6 20.1 0.002 20.8 18.8 18.5 0.01
  25–29.9 49.6 53.4 46.5   49.6 50.6 49.4  
  ≥30 30.8 28.0 33.4   29.6 30.5 32.1  
Energy intake, kcal/d, mean (SE) 1731 (18) 2009 (18) 2358 (18) <0.01 1854 (19) 1922 (19) 2324 (19) <0.01
Mini-Mental State Examination, mean (SE) 27.8 (0.1) 28.2 (0.1) 28.2 (0.1) <0.01 28.2 (0.1) 28.1 (0.1) 27.9 (0.1) <0.01
Eating difficulties, % 3.3 2.9 2.6 0.11 2.5 2.3 4.0 0.03
Diagnosed diseases, %         
  Cardiovascular diseasea 4.9 4.4 5.1 0.005 5.7 4.2 4.5 0.002
  Diabetes 13.0 11.9 9.7 <0.01 12.2 10.1 12.2 <0.01
  Cancer 1.2 2.1 2.2 0.19 2.0 1.8 1.7 0.42
  Asthma or chronic bronchitis 7.5 7.8 7.1 0.15 7.5 8.2 6.8 0.12
  Osteomuscular diseaseb 43.5 47.6 49.8 <0.01 48.1 47.9 44.9 <0.01
  Depression needing treatment 7.4 4.6 4.8 <0.01 5.2 5.3 6.2 <0.01
Limitation in IADL, % 9.0 6.0 7.5 <0.01 6.8 6.7 8.9 <0.01
Number of treatments, mean (SE) 2.1 (0.1) 1.9 (0.1) 1.9 (0.1) <0.01 2.2 (0.1) 1.8 (0.1) 1.8 (0.1) <0.01
  1. SE, Standard error; IADL, Instrumental activities of daily living. Values are adjusted for sex and age. P values in Table 2 test differences between the three tertile groups, based on χ2 or ANOVA tests, as appropriate.
  2. aIschemic heart disease, stroke, and heart failure; bOsteoarthritis, arthritis, and hip fracture; n = 1,872.