Skip to main content

Table 2 Regression coefficient and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the association between lifestyle factors and DALYs among 33,066 EPIC-NL participants

From: The impact of a healthy lifestyle on Disability-Adjusted Life Years: a prospective cohort study

  Lifestyle categories   P trend
Smoking status Current Former Never   
n 10,035 10,251 12,780   
DALY, mean ± SD 2.59 ± 6.10 1.98 ± 4.77 1.71 ± 4.53   
Crude Reference −0.61 (−0.76 to −0.46) −0.88 (−1.01 to −0.73)   <0.01
Adjusted model Reference −0.91 (−1.07 to −0.75) −1.15 (−1.30 to −0.99)   <0.01
BMI category BMI >30 BMI 25–30 BMI <25   
n 4,372 13,142 15,552   
DALY, mean ± SD 3.02 ± 5.59 2.28 ± 5.20 1.61 ± 4.89   
Crude Reference −0.74 (−0.91 to −0.55) −1.41 (−1.58 to −1.23)   <0.01
Adjusted model Reference −0.69 (−0.85 to −0.50) −1.04 (−1.23 to −0.86)   <0.01
mMDS score Low (0–2) Moderate (3–5) High (6–8)   
n 5,159 22,673 5,234   
DALY, mean ± SD 2.28 ± 5.49 2.07 ± 5.13 1.80 ± 4.80   
Crude Reference −0.21 (−0.40 to −0.05) −0.48 (−0.67 to −0.29)   <0.01
Adjusted model Reference −0.10 (−0.27 to 0.06) −0.24 (−0.44 to −0.02)   0.02
Physical activity Inactive Mod. inactive Mod. active Active  
n 2,273 8,038 8,696 14,059  
DALY, mean ± SD 3.11 ± 6.13 2.15 ± 5.09 2.01 ± 5.10 1.88 ± 4.99  
Crude Reference −0.96 (−1.21 to −0.66) −1.09 (−1.36 to −0.82) −1.23 (−1.47 to −0.95) <0.01
Adjusted model Reference −0.53 (−0.78 to −0.25) −0.49 (−0.75 to −0.23) −0.54 (−0.80 to −0.27) <0.01
  1. Multivariate model: adjusted for gender, age at recruitment, education level, energy intake, ethanol g/day, and drinking alcohol (never, quit, <1 drink/week, yes), and adjusted for the other individual lifestyle factors smoke duration and intensity, BMI (continuous), CPAI (4 cat), mMDS (continuous).