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Table 2 Association of whole grain intake with total and cause-specific mortality

From: Consumption of whole grains and cereal fiber and total and cause-specific mortality: prospective analysis of 367,442 individuals

  All participants Whole grains (oz eq/d) P trend
Q1 (n = 41,248) Q2 (n = 41,248) Q3 (n = 41,249) Q4 (n = 41,248) Q5 (n = 41,249)
0.13 0.30 0.47 0.69 1.20
Causes of death        
All cause        
No. of deaths 46,067 11,845 9,450 8,694 8,054 8,024  
Model 1   1.00 0.78 (0.76–0.80) 0.70 (0.68–0.72) 0.63(0.61–0.65) 0.61 (0.59–0.62) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.88 (0.86–0.91) 0.83 (0.81–0.85) 0.78 (0.75–0.80) 0.77 (0.75–0.79) <0.0001
Model 3   1.00 0.93 (0.90–0.95) 0.89 (0.87–0.92) 0.85 (0.82–0.87) 0.83 (0.81–0.86) <0.0001
Model 4   1.00 0.96 (0.93–0.99) 0.95 (0.92–0.98) 0.92 (0.89–0.96) 0.94 (0.90–0.97) 0.002
Cardiovascular disease        
No. of deaths 11,283 2,921 2,330 2,121 1,914 1,997 <0.0001
Model 1   1.00 0.78 (0.74–0.83) 0.69 (0.65–0.73) 0.60 (0.57–0.64) 0.60 (0.57–0.64) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.88 (0.83–0.93) 0.81 (0.77–0.86) 0.73 (0.69–0.77) 0.75 (0.71–0.80) <0.0001
Model 3   1.00 0.93 (0.88–0.98) 0.88 (0.83–0.93) 0.81 (0.77–0.86) 0.83 (0.78–0.88) <0.0001
Model 4   1.00 0.96 (0.91–1.02) 0.95 (0.89–1.01) 0.90 (0.84–0.97) 0.95 (0.88–1.03) 0.188
Cancer        
No. of deaths 19,043 4,836 3,912 3,616 3,388 3,291  
Model 1   1.00 0.79 (0.76–0.83) 0.71 (0.68–0.75) 0.65 (0.62–0.68) 0.61 (0.59–0.64) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.91 (0.87–0.95) 0.86 (0.83–0.90) 0.82 (0.79–0.86) 0.80 (0.76–0.84) <0.0001
Model 3   1.00 0.94 (0.90–0.98) 0.91 (0.87–0.95) 0.88 (0.84–0.92) 0.85 (0.81–0.89) <0.0001
Model 4   1.00 0.96 (0.92–1.00) 0.95 (0.90–0.99) 0.93 (0.88–0.98) 0.93 (0.88–0.99) 0.025
Diabetes        
No. of deaths 371 113 72 73 66 47  
Model 1   1.00 0.62 (0.46–0.84) 0.62 (0.46–0.83) 0.54 (0.40–0.73) 0.37 (0.27–0.52) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.67 (0.49–0.90) 0.67 (0.50–0.91) 0.60 (0.44–0.82) 0.42 (0.30–0.60) <0.0001
Model 3   1.00 0.71 (0.53–0.96) 0.76 (0.56–1.03) 0.72 (0.53–0.99) 0.52 (0.37–0.75) 0.0009
Model 4   1.00 0.74 (0.54–1.00) 0.81 (0.59–1.13) 0.78 (0.55–1.13) 0.57 (0.37–0.89) 0.029
Respiratory disease   
No. of deaths 3,796 1,123 802 673 606 592  
Model 1   1.00 0.69 (0.63–0.75) 0.56 (0.50–0.61) 0.48 (0.43–0.53) 0.45 (0.41–0.50) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.88 (0.80–0.96) 0.79 (0.72–0.87) 0.74 (0.67–0.82) 0.74 (0.67–0.82) <0.0001
Model 3   1.00 0.99 (0.90–1.09) 0.94 (0.85–1.03) 0.91 (0.82–1.01) 0.89 (0.80–0.98) 0.0099
Model 4   1.00 1.02 (0.93–1.12) 1.00 (0.90–1.11) 1.01 (0.90–1.14) 1.03 (0.91–1.18) 0.67
Infections        
No. of deaths 922 251 184 163 161 163  
Model 1   1.00 0.71 (0.59–0.86) 0.61 (0.50–0.75) 0.58 (0.48–0.71) 0.57 (0.47–0.70) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.78 (0.64–0.94) 0.69 (0.57–0.84) 0.68 (0.55–0.83) 0.68 (0.55–0.83) 0.0002
Model 3   1.00 0.84 (0.70–1.02) 0.78 (0.64–0.96) 0.79 (0.65–0.97) 0.77 (0.62–0.95) 0.02
Model 4   1.00 0.87 (0.71–1.06) 0.83 (0.67–1.04) 0.87 (0.69–1.10) 0.89 (0.68–1.16) 0.54
Other/unknown causes
No. of deaths 5,223 1,206 1,058 1,038 940 981  
Model 1   1.00 0.86 (0.79–0.93) 0.82 (0.76–0.90) 0.71 (0.66–0.78) 0.72 (0.66–0.78) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.91 (0.84–0.99) 0.90 (0.83–0.98) 0.80 (0.73–0.87) 0.81 (0.74–0.88) <0.0001
Model 3   1.00 0.97 (0.88–1.06) 0.97 (0.89–1.06) 0.87 (0.79–0.96) 0.86 (0.78–0.94) 0.0001
Model 4   1.00 0.99 (0.91–1.09) 1.03 (0.93–1.13) 0.96 (0.86–1.06) 0.98 (0.87–1.09) 0.54
  1. Data are hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The numbers of deaths are for participants who died during follow-up. The co-variables are baseline assessments.
  2. Model 1, Adjusted for age and gender; Model 2, Adjusted for age, gender, the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and time of smoking cessation (<1 years, 1 to 5 years, 5 to 10 years, or ≥10 years before baseline); Model 3, Adjusted for age, gender, the number of cigarettes smoked per day, time of smoking cessation (<1 years, 1 to 5 years, 5 to 10 years, or ≥10 years before baseline), race or ethnicity group, alcohol intake, education level, marital status (yes, no), health status (poor, fair, good, very good), obesity (underweight, overweight, obesity), physical activity, consumption of red meat, total fruit and total vegetables, total energy intake, and hormone usage. Model 4, Based on Model 3 further adjusted for cereal fiber.