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Table 3 Association of cereal fiber intake with total and cause-specific mortality

From: Consumption of whole grains and cereal fiber and total and cause-specific mortality: prospective analysis of 367,442 individuals

  All participants   Cereal fiber (g/d) P trend
Q1 (n = 73,488) Q2 (n = 73,488) Q3 (n = 73,489) Q4 (n = 73,488) Q5 (n = 73,489)
2.02 4.15 5.27 6.65 10.22
Causes of death
All cause    
No. of deaths 46,067 11,700 9,652 8,664 8,133 7,918  
Model 1   1.00 0.80 (0.78–0.83) 0.70 (0.68–0.72) 0.64 (0.62–0.66) 0.59 (0.58–0.61) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.89 (0.87–0.92) 0.83 (0.81–0.85) 0.78 (0.76–0.81) 0.76 (0.73–0.78) <0.0001
Model 3   1.00 0.93 (0.90–0.95) 0.87 (0.85–0.90) 0.84 (0.81–0.86) 0.81 (0.79–0.84) <0.0001
Cardiovascular disease 11,283   
No. of deaths   2,901 2,368 2,094 1,986 1,934  
Model 1   1.00 0.80 (0.76–0.85) 0.69 (0.65–0.73) 0.63 (0.59–0.66) 0.57 (0.54–0.61) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.88 (0.83–0.93) 0.80 (0.76–0.85) 0.76 (0.71–0.80) 0.72 (0.68–0.76) <0.0001
Model 3   1.00 0.93 (0.87–0.98) 0.86 (0.81–0.91) 0.83 (0.78–0.88) 0.80 (0.75–0.85) <0.0001
Cancer        
No. of deaths 19,043 4,772 3,974 3,616 3,391 3,290  
Model 1   1.00 0.81 (0.78–0.85) 0.72 (0.69–0.76) 0.66 (0.63–0.69) 0.61 (0.59–0.64) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.91 (0.87–0.95) 0.87 (0.83–0.91) 0.83 (0.79–0.86) 0.80 (0.77–0.84) <0.0001
Model 3   1.00 0.94 (0.90–0.98) 0.90 (0.86–0.95) 0.87 (0.83–0.91) 0.85 (0.81–0.89) <0.0001
Diabetes    
No. of deaths 371 92 92 72 57 51  
Model 1   1.00 0.92 (0.69–1.22) 0.70 (0.52–0.95) 0.54 (0.39–0.74) 0.45 (0.32–0.64) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.97 (0.73–1.29) 0.77 (0.56–1.04) 0.60 (0.43–0.83) 0.52 (0.37–0.73) <0.0001
Model 3   1.00 1.00 (0.74–1.35) 0.83 (0.60–1.15) 0.70 (0.50–0.99) 0.66 (0.46–0.94) 0.005
Respiratory disease
No. of deaths 3,796 1,082 866 652 649 547  
Model 1   1.00 0.75 (0.68–0.82) 0.54 (0.49–0.59) 0.52 (0.47–0.57) 0.42 (0.38–0.46) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.91(0.83–1.00) 0.76 (0.69–0.84) 0.80 (0.72–0.88) 0.70 (0.63–0.78) <0.0001
Model 3   1.00 0.98 (0.89–1.08) 0.82 (0.74–0.91) 0.89 (0.80–0.99) 0.79 (0.71–0.88) <0.0001
Infections        
No. of deaths 922 230 210 165 157 160  
Model 1   1.00 0.87 (0.72–1.05) 0.66 (0.54–0.81) 0.61 (0.50–0.75) 0.60 (0.49–0.74) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.94 (0.78–1.13) 0.75 (0.61–0.91) 0.71 (0.58–0.87) 0.71 (0.58–0.88) 0.0002
Model 3   1.00 1.04 (0.85–1.27) 0.84 (0.68–1.05) 0.82 (0.66–1.02) 0.83 (0.67–1.03) 0.023
Other/unknown causes
No. of deaths 5,223 1,215 1,050 1,044 963 951  
Model 1   1.00 0.84 (0.77–0.91) 0.81 (0.74–0.88) 0.72 (0.66–0.78) 0.67 (0.62–0.73) <0.0001
Model 2   1.00 0.88 (0.81–0.96) 0.88 (0.81–0.95) 0.79 (0.73–0.87) 0.76 (0.70–0.83) <0.0001
Model 3   1.00 0.90 (0.83–0.99) 0.91 (0.83–0.99) 0.83 (0.76–0.91) 0.79 (0.72–0.87) <0.0001
  1. Data are hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The numbers of deaths are for participants who died during follow-up. The co-variables are baseline assessments.
  2. Model 1, Adjusted for age and gender; Model 2, Adjusted for age, gender, the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and time of smoking cessation (<1 years, 1 to 5 years, 5 to 10 years, or ≥10 years before baseline); Model 3, Adjusted for age, gender, the number of cigarettes smoked per day, time of smoking cessation (<1 years, 1 to 5 years, 5 to 10 years, or ≥10 years before baseline), race or ethnicity group, alcohol intake, education level, marital status (yes, no), health status (poor, fair, good, very good), obesity (underweight, overweight, obesity), physical activity, consumption of red meat, total fruit and total vegetables, total energy intake, and hormone usage.