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Table 5 Summary of ethical disclosures and software issues

From: The evolution of mobile apps for asthma: an updated systematic assessment of content and tools

  2011 (n = 78) New 2013 (n = 92) ¤   All 2013 (n = 147) ¤
Quality domain Yes % Yes % P value Yes %
Ethical disclosures        
Attribution of authorship§ 21 36% 26 33% 0.856 40 33%
Purpose clearly stated 69 88% 88 96% 0.090 141 96%
Privacy policy available 7 9% 33 36% <0.001* 44 30%
Information versioning 1 1% 3 3% 0.626 4 3%
Contact details provided 32 41% 59 64% 0.003* 90 61%
Funding model clear 21 27% 30 33% 0.502 49 33%
Editorial/advertising policy 0 0% 5 5% 0.063 5 3%
Software issues        
Data entry validation issues** 9 33% 8 32% 1.000 16 33%
Functionality issues 13 17% 9 10% 0.252 15 10%
User interface issues 25 32% 34 37% 0.522 45 31%
Crashes 8 10% 8 9% 0.796 13 9%
Network issues 3 4% 20 22% <0.001* 25 17%
Other issues 10 13% 18 20% 0.301 28 19%
  1. The table compares the proportion of apps satisfying best practices for content attribution and ethical disclosures (detailed in Additional file 1: Table AF3), and those with software issues identified during testing (detailed with examples in Additional file 1: Table AF4), between 2011 and 2013.
  2. The proportion of information apps that satisfy a particular domain. Unless otherwise stated, the denominator is the total number of apps shown in the relevant heading.
  3. Two-tailed probability obtained from Fisher’s exact test of the comparison of topic coverage in apps available in 2011 and those available since 2013. *After applying a Holm-Bonferroni correction to control the family-wise error rate within each domain at less than or equal to 5%, three comparisons were significant.
  4. §Denominator for proportions reflects only apps with attributable content, e.g., written information, measurement scales, pollen/pollution data. Attribution of the software itself lies with the developers whose details are always released. Denominators: 2011 n = 59, New 2013 n = 80, 2013 n = 120.
  5. ¤ New 2013, Apps available in 2013 that were not available in 2011; All 2013, All apps available in 2013, excluding those available in 2011 that were subsequently discontinued.
  6. **Data entry validation concerns steps taken to prevent out-of-range or inappropriate data being stored in an app, for example, textual values allowed in a numeric field. As a result, the denominator reflects only apps permitting data entry, e.g., calculators, diaries. Denominators: 2011 n = 27, New 2013 n = 25, 2013 n = 49.