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Table 1 Definitions of indicators and covariates

From: Benchmarking health system performance across districts in Zambia: a systematic analysis of levels and trends in key maternal and child health interventions from 1990 to 2010

Indicator or covariate (abbreviation) Definition Sources of data
Indicators
Antenatal care (ANC1, ANC4) The proportion of women 15 to 49 years old who gave birth in the given year and had one/four or more antenatal visits attended by skilled personnel (doctor, nurse, midwife, or clinical officer) at a health facility during the corresponding pregnancy DHS: 1992, 1996–7, 2001–2, 2007
MIS: 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012
Skilled birth attendance The proportion of women 15 to 49 years old who gave birth in the given year and delivered with a skilled birth attendant (a doctor, nurse, midwife, or clinical officer) DHS: 1992, 1996–7, 2001–2, 2007
MICS: 1999
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunization The proportion of children under 5 years old who were vaccinated against tuberculosis in the given year DHS: 1992, 1996–7, 2001–2, 2007
LCMS: 1996, 1998, 2002–3, 2004–5, 2010
MICS: 1999
Diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus immunization The proportion of children 12 to 59 months old who received three doses of the diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine in the given year DHS: 1992, 1996–7, 2001–2, 2007
LCMS: 1996, 1998, 2002–3, 2004–5, 2010
MICS: 1999
Measles immunization The proportion of children 12 to 59 months old who received measles vaccination in the given year DHS: 1992, 1996–7, 2001–2, 2007
LCMS: 1996, 1998, 2002–3, 2004–5, 2010
MICS: 1999
Polio immunization The proportion of children 12 to 59 months old who received three doses of the oral polio vaccine in the given year DHS: 1992, 1996–7, 2001–2, 2007
LCMS: 1996, 1998, 2002–3, 2004–5, 2010
MICS: 1999
Pentavalent immunization The proportion of children 12 to 59 months old who received three doses of the pentavalent vaccine, which includes protection against DPT, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenzae type b DHS: 2007
LCMS: 2010
Exclusive breastfeeding* The proportion of children who were exclusively breastfed during their first 6 months after birth DHS: 1992
LCMS: 1996, 1998, 2003–3, 2004–5, 2010
Percentage of children not underweight The proportion of children under 5 years old determined as not being underweight, defined as weighing two or more standard deviations below the international anthropometric reference population median of weight for age DHS: 1992, 1996–7, 2001–2, 2007
LCMS: 1996, 1998, 2002–3, 2004–5, 2006, 2010
Intermittent preventive therapy for malaria during pregnancy (IPTp1, IPTp2) The proportion of women 15 to 49 years old who gave birth in the given year and who received at least one/two treatment doses of Fansidar (sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine) at antenatal care visits during the corresponding pregnancy DHS: 2007
MIS: 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012
Insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership The proportion of households that own at least one ITN DHS: 2007
HHCS: 2008
MIS: 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012
Netmark: 2000, 2004
SBS: 2005, 2009
ITN use by children under five The proportion of children under 5 years old who slept under an ITN the previous night DHS: 2007
HHCS: 2008
MICS: 1999
MIS: 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012
Netmark: 2000, 2004
SBS: 2005, 2009
Indoor residual spraying (IRS) The proportion of households that were sprayed with an insecticide-based solution in the last 12 months DHS: 2007
HHCS: 2008
MIS: 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012
NMCC: 2005-2010
ITN ownership or IRS The proportion of households that either own an ITN, or were sprayed with an insecticide-based solution in the last 12 months, or both DHS: 2007
HHCS: 2008
MIS: 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012
Netmark: 2000, 2004
SBS: 2005, 2009
ITN use or IRS The proportion of children under 5 years who either slept under an ITN the previous night, or live in a household that was sprayed with an insecticide-based solution in the last 12 months, or both DHS: 2007
HHCS: 2008
MICS: 1999
MIS: 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012
Netmark: 2000, 2004
SBS: 2005, 2009
Covariates
Household electricity The proportion of households with electricity Census: 1990, 2000, 2010
DHS: 1992, 1996–7, 2001–2, 2007
LCMS: 1996, 1998, 2002–3, 2004–5, 2006, 2010
Female headship of households The proportion of households with a female head Census: 1990, 2000, 2010
DHS: 1992, 1996–7, 2001–2, 2007
LCMS: 1996, 1998, 2002–3, 2004–5, 2006, 2010
MICS: 1999
Household size The average number of members per household Census: 1990, 2000, 2010
DHS: 1992, 1996–7, 2001–2, 2007
LCMS: 1996, 1998, 2002–3, 2004–5, 2006, 2010
MICS: 1999
Education of women 15 to 44 years old The average years of schooling for women 15 to 44 years old Census: 1990, 2000, 2010
DHS: 1992, 1996–7, 2001–2, 2007
LCMS: 1996, 1998, 2002–3, 2004–5, 2006, 2010
MICS: 1999
Improved dwelling wall type The proportion of households with dwelling walls constructed of an improved material Census: 1990, 2000, 2010
DHS: 1992, 1996–7, 2001–2, 2007
LCMS: 1996, 1998, 2002–3, 2004–5, 2006, 2010
MICS: 1999
Health facilities per capita The number of health facilities per 1,000 inhabitants Census: 1990, 2000, 2010
JICA: 2006
  1. *Exclusive breastfeeding was selected rather than early initiation or continued breastfeeding because it has the strongest relationship with child mortality.
  2. DHS, Demographic and Health Survey; MIS, Malaria Indicator Survey; MICS, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey; LCMS, Living Conditions Monitoring Survey; Netmark, Netmark Survey; HHCS, Household Health Coverage Survey; SBS, Sexual Behavior Survey; NMCC, National Malaria Control Centre Administrative Data; Census, National Population Census; JICA, Japan International Cooperation Agency Health Facility Census.