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Table 1 Range of mitochondrial abnormalities seen in MS, CFS, PD, AUT, MDD, Schiz and BPD

From: The many roads to mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroimmune and neuropsychiatric disorders

Mitochondrial abnormality MS CFS PD AUT MDD Schiz BPD
Ultrastructural abnormalities in mitochondria + ++ + + + +++ +
Evidence to shift in energy production via glycolysis + ++ ++ ++   ++ ++
Mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral immune cells + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ +
Mitochondria DNA damage +      ++  
Damage to the electron transport chain ++   +++ +   ++ +
High lactate in brain or cerebrospinal fluid + + + + + ++ +
Bioenergetic impairment Skeletal muscle   +++    +   
Decreased mitochondrial membrane potential   + +     
  1. MS, Multiple sclerosis; CFS, Chronic fatigue syndrome; PD, Parkinson’s disease; AUT, Autism; MDD, Major depression; Schiz, Schizophrenia; BPD, Bipolar disorder.