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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants

From: Ready-to-use therapeutic food with elevated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, with or without fish oil, to treat severe acute malnutrition: a randomized controlled trial

Baseline characteristics S-RUTF F-RUTF FFO-RUTF
Participantsa 20 20 20
Age, months 18 (9 to 30) 16 (11 to 25) 14 (11 to 21)
Sex: Male 12 (60) 10 (50) 11 (55)
Nutritional Status    
Mid-upper arm circumference, cm 11.2 (10.9 to 11.4) 11.3 (10.8 to 11.9) 10.9 (10.4 to 11.4)
Weight-for-height/length z score −3.11 (−4.43 to −1.89) −3.31 (−3.88 to −2.90) −3.65 (−4.12 to −3.19)
Bilateral pedal edema (kwashiorkor) 1 (5) 1 (5) 0 (0)
Height-for-age z score −3.11 (−3.90 to −1.93) −3.36 (−4.58 to −2.55) −2.58 (−4.20 to −1.97)
Head circumference-for-age z score −1.38 (−3.36 to −0.62) −1.85 (−2.82 to −1.02) −1.37 (−2.27 to −0.56)
Breastfeeding 8 (40) 8 (40) 12 (60)
Complementary feeds introduced, months of age 5 (2 to 6) 4 (2 to 6) 4 (3 to 6)
Complications    
Diarrhea 11 (55) 8 (40) 4 (20)
Pneumonia 3 (15) 3 (15) 1 (5)
Shock 1 (5) 2 (10) 0 (0)
Congenital heart disease 3 (15) 1 (5) 3 (15)
Cerebral palsy 3 (15) 1 (5) 4 (20)
Demographics    
Main carer is not the mother 4 (20) 5 (25) 1 (5)
Main carer has no primary education 7 (35) 8 (40) 8 (40)
Lives in mud-walled house 13 (65) 15 (75) 17 (85)
No toilet in house/compound 8 (40) 6 (30) 5 (25)
Fisherman in household 1 (5) 2 (10) 2 (10)
  1. Data are number (%) or median (inter-quartile range) unless otherwise specified.
  2. aExcluding one child withdrawn due to ineligibility (S-RUTF arm).
  3. S-RUTF, Trial arm receiving standard-formulation RUTF without fish oil capsules; FFO-RUTF, Trial arm receiving flax seed oil-containing RUTF and fish oil capsules; F-RUTF, Trial arm receiving flax seed oil-containing RUTF without fish oil capsules.