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Table 3 Poisson regression of risk factors for incident TB among patients receiving ART

From: The predictive value of current haemoglobin levels for incident tuberculosis and/or mortality during long-term antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a cohort study

  Unadjusted IRR (95%CI) P -value* Adjusted IRR (95%CI) P -value*
Age (for each year decrease) 1.01 (1.00-1.02) 0.091 1.01 (1.00-1.03) 0.018
Gender     
Female 1.0 0.458   
Male 1.08 (0.89-1.31)    
WHO stage at baseline**   0.003   
1/2 1.0   1.0 0.457
3/4 1.44 (1.12-1.84)   1.10 (0.85-1.44)  
Baseline anaemia severity     
None 1.0 0.067   
Mild 0.96 (0.72-1.27)    
Moderate 1.27 (0.99-1.62)    
Severe 1.42 (0.87-2.32)    
Baseline CD4 category (cells/μL)     
≥150 1.0 0.298   
100-149 1.25 (0.96-1.63)    
50-99 1.21 (0.93-1.57)    
<50 1.22 (0.94-1.58)    
Baseline viral load (cells/mL)     
<5.0 1.0 0.984   
≥5.0 1.00 (0.96-1.04)    
CD4 category (cells/μL) (updated)**     
≥500 1.0 <0.001 1.0 <0.001
200-499 1.65 (1.25-2.18)   1.49 (1.11-1.99)  
100-199 2.93 (2.16-3.99)   2.02 (1.41-2.89)  
<100 6.63 (4.88-9.00)   3.15 (2.10-4.73)  
Viral load (cells/mL) (updated)**     
<1,000 1.0 <0.001 1.0 0.005
≥1,000 3.31 (2.74-4.00)   1.48 (1.13-1.94)  
WHO anaemia severity (updated)**     
None 1.0 <0.001 1.0 <0.001
Mild 2.15 (1.70-2.71)   1.98 (1.56-2.51)  
Moderate 5.011 (4.13-6.33)   3.80 (3.00-4.80)  
Severe 13.61 (9.02-20.52)   8.19 (5.29-12.69)  
Duration of ART (months)     
<4 1.0 <0.001 1.0 0.476
4-12 0.46 (0.34-0.63)   1.15 (0.81-1.63)  
12-24 0.35 (0.26-0.47)   1.35 (0.94-1.93)  
24-36 0.33 (0.24-0.45)   1.38 (0.95-2.01)  
36-48 0.34 (0.25-0.46)   1.47 (1.01-2.14)  
48-60 0.29 (0.20-0.40)   1.30 (0.86-1.95)  
>60 0.26 (0.18-0.37)   1.16 (0.75-1.79)  
Past history of TB     
No 1.0 <0.001 1.0 <0.001
Yes 1.47 (1.23-1.77)   1.55 (1.28-1.89)  
Prevalent TB     
No 1.0 0.473   
Yes 0.93 (0.75-1.14)    
Recurrent TB     
No 1.0 0.104   
Yes 1.18 (0.96-1.46)    
  1. Abbreviations:ART antiretroviral, IRR incident rate ratio, TB tuberculosis, WHO World Health Organization.
  2. *P-values calculated using likelihood ratio tests.
  3. **No evidence for interaction between time-updated anaemia severity and time-updated CD4 count, time-updated viral load, duration of ART, WHO stage at ART initiation.