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Table 1 Effect of coagulation factor deficiencies in animal models of sepsis

From: Causes and consequences of coagulation activation in sepsis: an evolutionary medicine perspective

Model (genetic alteration) Effect on hemostasis* Sepsis/infection model Effect on pathogen clearance/sepsis severity
EPCR deficiency Pneumococcal sepsis ↓ bacterial dissemination [81]
Melioidosis** Unaltered [82]
Endotoxemia ↑ mortality [83]
α2-antiplasmin deficiency Melioidosis** ↑ mortality, ↑ bacterial dissemination [59]
Overexpression of EPCR Pneumococcal sepsis ↑ bacterial dissemination [81]
Melioidosis** ↑ bacterial dissemination [82]
t-PA deficiency Melioidosis** ↓ mortality, ↓ bacterial dissemination [56]
Septic peritonitis ↑ mortality, ↑ bacterial dissemination [84]
Factor XI deficiency Y. enterocolitica (ip) Unaltered [51]
Peritoneal sepsis ↓ mortality [71]
Listeriosis ↓ mortality, ↓ bacterial dissemination [70]
Factor VIII deficiency Endotoxemia Unaltered [85]
E. coli (ip) ↑ bacterial growth, ↔ survival [86]
Factor IX deficiency Endotoxemia Unaltered [85]
PAI-1 deficiency Melioidosis** ↑ mortality, ↑ bacterial dissemination [57]
H. influenza infection ↑ bacterial dissemination [58]
Klebsiella pneumonia ↑ mortality, ↑ bacterial dissemination [87]
Fibrinogen deficiency Y. enterocolitica (ip) ↑ mortality, ↑ bacterial dissemination [51]
Group A streptococci ↑ mortality [52]
Listeriosis ↑ mortality, ↑ bacterial dissemination [50]
Factor V deficiency Group A streptococci ↑ mortality [52]
Tissue factor deficiency S. aureus sepsis Unaltered [72]
Y. enterocolitica (ip) ↑ mortality [51]
Endotoxemia ↓ inflammation [88]
Endotoxemia ↓ mortality, ↓ inflammation [31]
PAI-1 + TAFI double deficiency Y. enterocolitica (ip) ↑ mortality [51]
Factor II deficiency S. aureus sepsis ↓ mortality [72]
Factor XIII deficiency S. aureus sepsis Unaltered [72]
S. pyogenes (skin) ↑ bacterial dissemination [15]
Protein C deficiency (het) Endotoxemia ↑ mortality [89]
TAFI deficiency E. coli (ip) Transient ↑ bacterial outgrowth [90]
Factor VII deficiency Endotoxemia ↓ mortality, ↓ inflammation [32]
Factor V leiden Septic peritonitis Unaltered [91]
Endotoxemia ↓ mortality [76]***
  1. *The global effect of each genetic deficiency on hemostasis was defined based on current knowledge about hemostatic mechanisms. **Respiratory sepsis by intranasal instillation of Gram-negative Burkholderia pseudomallei. ***Lower mortality observed only in heterozygous mice. EPCR: endothelial protein C receptor. t-PA: tissue-type plasminogen activator; PAI-1: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; TAFI: thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor; ip: intraperitoneal; het: heterozygous.