Model and treatment schematic. A. Model schematic. Individuals are born healthy and may subsequently acquire latent TB infections through transmission. Disease progresses through latent disease, binned into latent fast or latent slow, through an active presymptomatic phase, and to active symptomatic disease. Individuals in the active presymptomatic and active symptomatic phases are infectious (excluding those with extrapulmonary TB). At the start of active disease, individuals may seek treatment. Individuals may die from non-disease mortality at any phase, but disease mortality only occurs in the active symptomatic phase. B. Treatment pathways. Individuals seek treatment either in the CDC or in private hospitals. Once on treatment, they can either be cured, relapse, fail, or die during treatment. Individuals who fail treatment in hospitals can seek retreatment in the CDC or again seek treatment in hospitals. See Additional file 1 for additional details on how the disease progression and treatment pathways were handled in the model.