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Table 2 Microbiological results at baseline

From: Procalcitonin and pyuria-based algorithm reduces antibiotic use in urinary tract infections: a randomized controlled trial

Isolation of uropathogens in baseline urine culture
n (%) Control group PCT/Pyuria group
All patients (intention-to-treat) (n = 64) (n = 61)
 Missing urine cultures 2 (3%) 8 (13%)
 Sterile urine cultures 4 (6%) 4 (7%)
 Contaminated urine cultures 6 (9%) 3 (5%)
 Urine cultures with bacterial growth 52 (82%) 46 (75%)
Total no. of isolates a 53 52
Gram-negative uropathogen   
Escherichia coli 37/53 (70%) 39/52 (75%)
Klebsiella pneumoniae 6/53 (11%) 3/52 (6%)
Citrobacter koseri 0 1/52 (2%)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 0 1/52 (2%)
Proteus mirabilis 0 1/52 (2%)
Gram-positive uropathogen   
Enterococcus faecalis 3/53 (6%) 6/52 (12%)
Aerococcus urinae 1/53 (2%) 0
Non uropathogen   
Staphylococcus aureus 3/53 (6%) 0
 Lactobacillus speciesb 2/53 (4%) 0
Granulicatella adiacens 0 1/52 (2%)
 Salmonella species 1/53 (2%) 0
Isolation of uropathogens in baseline blood cultures
n (%) Control group PCT/Pyuria group
All patients (intention-to-treat) (n = 64) (n = 61)
Blood samples for culture obtained 44 (69%) 44 (72%)
No. (%) of contaminated blood cultures 2/44 (5%) 2/44 (5%)
 Coagulase-negative staphylococci 2/44 (5%) 1/44 (2%)
Propionibacterium acnes 0 1/44 (2%)
No. (%) of positive blood cultures 19/44 (43%) 9/44 (20%)
Gram-negative uropathogen   
Escherichia coli 14/19 (74%) 9/9 (100%)
Klebsiella oxytoca 1/19 (5%)c 0
Gram-positive uropathogen   
Enterococcus faecalis 1/19 (5%) 0
Non uropathogen   
Staphylococcus aureus 2/19 (11%)c 0
 Lactobacillus species 1/19 (5%) 0
  1. aTwo isolates in five cultures, three isolates in one culture.
  2. bLactobacillus species was not a classical uropathogen but in one case confirmed by concomitant positive blood cultures with Lactobacillus species (4/4 samples).
  3. cThree patients not included in the per protocol analysis with final diagnosis other than UTI: Klebsiella oxytoca in one patient with infected kidney cyst, Staphylococcus aureus in one patient with endocarditis, and one patient with prostatitis.