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Table 6 Microbiological outcome 7 days after end of therapy

From: Procalcitonin and pyuria-based algorithm reduces antibiotic use in urinary tract infections: a randomized controlled trial

n (%) Control group PCT/Pyuria group Odds ratio 95% CI P value a
All patients (intention-to-treat) (n = 64) (n = 61)    
Missing urinalysis 10/64 (16%) 8/61 (13%) 0.82 0.30–2.22 0.69
Missing urine cultures 8/64 (13%) 8/61 (13%) 1.06 0.37–3.02 0.92
Sterile urine cultures 19/56 (34%) 20/53 (38%) 1.18 0.54–2.58 0.68
Contaminated urine cultures b 25/56 (45%) 16/53 (30%) 0.54 0.24–1.18 0.12
Urine cultures with pathogen c 12/56 (21%) 17/53 (32%) 1.73 0.73–4.09 0.21
 Colonizations 6/53 (11%) 8/51 (16%) 1.46 0.47–4.54 0.52
 Infectionsd 6/53 (11%) 8/51 (16%) 1.46 0.47–4.54 0.52
Persistence of initial pathogen c 3/56 (5%) 4/51 (8%) 1.50 0.32–7.07 0.61
 Persistent colonization 0 1/51 (2%)    
 Persistent infectiond 3/53 (6%) 3/51 (6%) 1.04 0.20–5.42 0.96
New organism c 9/56 (16%) 11/51 (22%) 1.44 0.54–3.81 0.47
 Colonizations 6/53 (11%) 7/49 (14%) 1.31 0.41–4.19 0.65
 Infectionsd 3/53 (6%) 3/49 (6%) 1.09 0.21–5.66 0.92
n (%) Control Group PCT/ Pyuria Group    
Total no. of isolates 13 18    
Gram-negative uropathogen      
Escherichia coli 3/13 (23%) 3/18 (17%)    
Klebsiella pneumoniae 1/13 (8%) 1/18 (6%)    
Gram-positive uropathogen      
Enterococcus faecalis 6/13 (46%) 11/18 (61%)    
Enterococcus faecium 1/13 (8%) 1/18 (6%)    
Staphylococcus saprophyticus 1/13 (8%) 0    
Non uropathogen      
 Lactobacillus speciesb 1/13 (8%) 1/18 (6%)    
Candida albicans 0 1/18 (6%)    
  1. aLogistic regression analysis.
  2. bLactobacillus species were considered as contaminants.
  3. cIn case of contaminated (n = 1 in PCT/Pyuria group) initial urine culture any uropathogen was considered as new organism, in case of missing (n = 2 in PCT/ Pyuria group) initial urine culture the uropathogen was not attributed to persistent or new organism group.
  4. dInfection was assumed if pyuria (>20 leukocytes/μL) was present in concomitant urinalysis.