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Table 7 Microbiological and clinical outcome 30 days after enrollment

From: Procalcitonin and pyuria-based algorithm reduces antibiotic use in urinary tract infections: a randomized controlled trial

n (%) Control group PCT/Pyuria group Odds ratio 95% CI P value a
All patients (intention-to-treat) (n = 64) (n = 61)    
Missing urinalysis 10/64 (16%) 9/61 (13%) 0.93 0.35–2.48 0.89
Missing urine cultures 14/64 (22%) 11/61 (18%) 0.79 0.33–1.90 0.59
Sterile urine cultures 19/50 (38%) 8/50 (16%) 0.31 0.12–0.80 0.02
Contaminated urine cultures b 20/50 (40%) 26/50 (52%) 1.63 0.74–3.59 0.23
Urine cultures with pathogen c 11/50 (22%) 16/50 (32%) 1.67 0.68–4.08 0.26
 Colonizations 3/50 (6%) 3/49 (6%) 1.02 0.20–5.33 0.98
 Infectionsd 8/50 (16%) 13/49 (27%) 1.90 0.71–5.09 0.20
 Symptomatic infections 2/50 (4%) 3/49 (6%) 1.57 0.25–9.80 0.63
Persistence of initial pathogen c 6/50 (12%) 8/48 (17%) 1.47 0.47–4.59 0.51
 Persistent colonizations 1/50 (2%) 1/47 (2%) 1.07 0.06–17.53 0.97
 Persistent infectionsd 5/50 (10%) 7/47 (15%) 1.58 0.46–5.36 0.47
 Persistent symptomatic infectionsd 2/50 (4%) 2/47 (4%) 1.07 0.14–7.90 0.95
New organism c 5/50 (10%) 6/48 (13%) 1.29 0.37–4.53 0.70
 Colonizations 2/50 (4%) 2/47 (4%) 1.07 0.14–7.90 0.95
 Infectionsd 3/50 (6%) 4/47 (9%) 1.46 0.31–6.89 0.64
 Symptomatic infectionsd 0 0    
n (%) Control group PCT/Pyuria group    
Total no. of isolates e 17 22    
Gram-negative uropathogen      
Escherichia coli 5/17 (29%) 7/22 (32%)    
Klebsiella pneumoniae 2/17 (12%) 1/22 (5%)    
Citrobacter koseri 1/17 (6%) 1/22 (5%)    
Enterobacter cloacae 0 1/22 (5%)    
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 0 1/22 (5%)    
Gram-positive uropathogen      
Enterococcus faecalis 5/17 (29%) 9/22 (41%)    
Enterococcus faecium 1/17 (6%) 0    
Staphylococcus saprophyticus 0 1/22 (5%)    
 Group B Streptococci 1/17 (6%) 0    
Non-uropathogen      
Staphylococcus aureus 1/17 (6%) 0    
 Coagulase-negative staphylococcib 0 1/22 (5%)    
 Lactobacillus speciesb 1/17 (6%) 1/22 (5%)    
Streptococcus milleri 0 1/22 (5%)    
  1. aLogistic regression analysis.
  2. bLactobacillus species and Coagulase-negative staphylococci were considered as contaminants.
  3. cIn case of missing initial urine culture (n = 2 in the PCT/Pyuria group) any uropathogen was not attributed to persistent or new organism group.
  4. dInfection was assumed if pyuria (>20 leukocytes/μL) was present in concomitant urinalysis.
  5. eTwo isolates in nine cultures.