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Table 1 Main demographic characteristics of the study population

From: Adverse childhood experiences are associated with spontaneous preterm birth: a case–control study

Characteristic Cases, n = 210 Controls, n = 412 ORa 95% CI P
Maternal age, yearb 28.3 ± 5.6 29.6 ± 5.2 0.96 0.93–0.99 0.004
Caucasian, n (%) 177 (84) 341 (83) 1.12 0.71–1.75 0.63
Smoking, n (%) 62 (30) 69 (17) 2.08 1.41–3.09 <0.001
Alcohol, n (%) 12 (6) 7 (2) 3.51 1.36–9.04 0.009
Street drugs, n (%) 15 (7) 8 (2) 3.89 1.12–9.32 0.002
Educational status   0.008c
High school diploma or less, n (% of known status) 34 (45) 37 (25) Reference
Undergraduate degree, n (% of known status) 35 (46) 99 (66) 0.39d 0.21–0.70 0.002
Graduate degree, n (% of known status) 7 (9) 14 (9) 0.54d 0.19–1.51 0.24
Marital status   0.43c
Pre-pregnant BMIb 26 ± 6.7 26 ± 6.2 1.00 0.97–1.03 0.93
Parity 0.78 ± 1 0.68 ± 0.89 1.12 0.93–1.33 0.21
Previous miscarriage, n (%) 68 (32) 96 (23) 1.58 1.09–2.28 0.015
ART, n (%) 6 (3%) 13 (3%) 0.79 0.30–2.09 0.63
Gestational age, wksb 33.7 ± 2.5 39.7 ± 1.0   <0.001
Birth weight, gb 2269 ± 584 3531 ± 461   <0.001
  1. Variables were analyzed using χ2 test or univariate logistic regression. aOdds ratio for spontaneous preterm birth; bMean ± standard deviation; cAnalyzed as continuous variable; dCompared to reference group