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Table 3 Population prevalence of risk factors for NCDs among women (≥18 years)

From: High prevalence of hypertension and of risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs): a population based cross-sectional survey of NCDS and HIV infection in Northwestern Tanzania and Southern Uganda

Tanzania– Total women Mwanza municipality (number = 98) District towns (number = 191) Rural (number = 301)
  Weighted % (95 % CI)a Unweighted Nb Weighted % (95 % CI)a Unweighted Nb Weighted % (95 % CI)a Unweighted Nb
Smoking       
 Current smoker 2.9 % (0.8–10.0) 3 1.3 % (0.3–6.3 ) 3 1.2 % (0.3–5.1 ) 3
 Ex–smoker 3.5 % (1.2–9.7 ) 3 1.1 % (0.3–4.2 ) 2 1.3 % (0.5–3.4 ) 4
 Never smoked 93.6 % (85.4–97.3) 92 97.6 % (93.5–99.1) 186 97.6 % (94.9–98.9) 294
Alcohol consumption       
 Never drinks 75.2 % (61.7–85.1) 75 66.4 % (58.6–73.4) 128 76.5 % (68.7–82.8) 231
 No drinking in past 12 months 11.2 % (6.2–19.3) 11 24.2 % (18.5–30.9) 44 19.1 % (13.2–26.9) 59
 Drinking in past 12 months 13.6 % (6.2–27.1) 12 9.4 % (5.8–14.8) 19 4.4 % (2.5–7.4 ) 11
AUDIT scale (among drinkers)c       
 Non problem drinking 58.6 % (30.8–81.8) 7 78.6 % (59.2–90.3) 14 72.4 % (41.2–90.8) 8
 Problem drinking 41.4 % (18.2–69.2) 5 21.4 % (9.7–40.8) 4 27.6 % (9.2–58.8) 3
Eats fewer than one serving of fruit/vegetables per dayd 27.9 % (16.0–44.0) 26 22.3 % (14.1–33.3) 35 34.8 % (24.7–46.5) 75
Eats fruit/vegetables fewer than 5 days/week 31.0 % (18.8–46.7) 31 19.7 % (12.4–29.9) 40 25.7 % (18.0–35.1) 72
Days of vigorous physical activity/weeke,f       
 None 59.6 % (48.2–70.1) 58 65.7 % (56.8–73.7) 127 34.0 % (27.4–41.2) 103
 1–2 4.9 % (1.9–12.1) 5 5.5 % (3.3–9.0 ) 10 3.2 % (2.0–5.2 ) 10
 3–4 5.4 % (2.0–13.8) 5 3.7 % (1.7–7.7 ) 7 9.3 % (5.8–14.5) 28
 5+ 30.1 % (21.2–40.6) 29 25.1 % (17.6–34.5) 47 53.5 % (45.2–61.7) 160
BMI category (kg/m2) g,h       
 Underweight (<18.5) 10.8 % (7.2–16.0) 11 7.4 % (4.1–13.2) 14 9.8 % (6.7–14.1) 25
 Normal (18.5– < 25) 56.1 % (47.4–64.5) 53 53.3 % (45.7–60.7) 98 74.4 % (68.1–79.9) 204
 Overweight (25– < 30) 24.0 % (17.9–31.5) 22 17.6 % (13.2–23.1) 32 12.8 % (8.8–18.1) 37
 Obese (≥30) 9.0 % (4.9–15.9) 9 21.7 % (14.3–31.6) 38 3.0 % (1.2–7.3 ) 8
Waist circumference >80 cmg 40.2 % (30.6-50.6) 37 47.5 % (38.6-56.5) 85 32.4 % (26.4-39.1) 93
Uganda– Total women Entebbe municipality (n = 127) District towns (n = 170) Rural (n = 244)
Smoking       
 Current smoker 1.6 % (0.4–5.7 ) 2 3.3 % (1.1–9.0 ) 5 2.1 % (0.9–4.9 ) 6
 Ex–smoker 3.9 % (1.5–9.6 ) 5 1.1 % (0.2–6.8 ) 2 4.1 % (2.3–7.3 ) 9
 Never smoked 94.5 % (87.3–97.7) 120 95.6 % (90.4–98.1) 163 93.7 % (89.3–96.4) 229
Alcohol consumption       
 Never drinks 36.2 % (27.4–46.0) 46 46.1 % (37.0–55.5) 78 45.9 % (38.4–53.6) 115
 No drinking in past 12 months 28.3 % (18.3–41.1) 36 23.0 % (16.5–31.0) 38 25.6 % (18.1–34.8) 61
 Drinking in past 12 months 35.4 % (25.0–47.5) 45 30.9 % (26.8–35.3) 54 28.5 % (20.6–37.8) 68
AUDIT scale (among drinkers)       
 Non problem drinking 97.8 % (83.6–99.7) 44 96.6 % (81.5–99.5) 53 94.5 % (84.2–98.2) 64
 Problem drinking 2.2 % (0.3–16.4) 1 3.4 % (0.5–18.5) 1 5.5 % (1.8–15.8) 4
Eats fewer than one serving of fruit/vegetables per day 46.5 % (36.0–57.2) 59 58.1 % (48.6–67.1) 112 63.5 % (54.6–71.5) 158
Eats fruit/vegetables fewer than 5 days/week 44.9 % (35.3–54.8) 57 43.0 % (33.3–53.2) 90 51.2 % (44.0–58.4) 128
Days of vigorous physical activity/weeke       
 None 81.9 % (64.7–91.8) 104 95.6 % (89.4–98.2) 162 91.9 % (84.0–96.1) 225
 1–2 7.9 % (3.0–19.3) 10 1.1 % (0.1–8.0 ) 2 3.1 % (1.4–6.6 ) 7
 3–4 2.4 % (0.5–9.6 ) 3 2.2 % (0.6–7.5 ) 3 0.5 % (0.1–4.0 ) 1
 5+ 7.9 % (3.2–18.1) 10 1.2 % (0.2–8.0 ) 3 4.5 % (1.9–9.9 ) 11
BMI category (kg/m2)i,j       
 Underweight (<18.5) 1.7 % (0.4–6.2 ) 2 0.4 % (0.1–0.9 ) 5 10.0 % (6.3–15.5) 26
 Normal (18.5– < 25) 55.4 % (42.5–67.5) 67 54.1 % (45.0–63.0) 83 48.2 % (38.7–57.9) 114
 Overweight (25– < 30) 24.8 % (17.2–34.4) 30 30.1 % (23.9–37.1) 46 30.3 % (23.6–38.0) 63
 Obese (≥30) 18.2 % (9.9–31.0) 22 15.4 % (11.1–21.1) 21 11.4 % (7.4–17.2) 24
Waist circumference >80 cmk 39.8 % (26.4–55.0) 49 41.9 % (33.2–51.1) 68 44.6 % (37.9–51.6) 95
  1. aWeighted estimates, adjusted for survey design with sampling weights applied. See footnote 1 of Table 1; bactual number of respondents, without sampling weights applied; cmissing for 1 participant from district towns; dmissing for 10 participants from Mwanza municipality, 39 from district towns and 78 rural participants (majority did not recall how many servings of vegetables they ate); edefined as spending at least 10 minutes continuously in vigorous–intensity activity per day (as per WHO STEPS Survey questionnaire); fmissing for 1 participant from Mwanza municipality; gBMI and waist circumference results exclude 35 pregnant women; hmissing for 4 rural participants; iBMI and waist circumference results exclude 33 pregnant women; jmissing for 3 participants from Entebbe municipality, 1 from district towns and 1 rural participant. kmissing for 1 participant from Entebbe municipality. AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; NCDs, non-communicable diseases