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Table 6 Factors associated with hypertensiona

From: High prevalence of hypertension and of risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs): a population based cross-sectional survey of NCDS and HIV infection in Northwestern Tanzania and Southern Uganda

  Number with hypertension / total Number (%)b Age-, sex- and stratum adjusted OR (95 % CI)c Adjusted OR (95 % CI)c,d
Sociodemographic    
Age group   P <0.001 P <0.001
 18–24 years 39 / 569 (6.9 %) 1 1
 25–34 years 63 / 598 (10.5 %) 1.61 (1.04 – 2.49) 1.62 (1.00 – 2.62)
 35–44 years 73 / 329 (22.2 %) 4.04 (2.80 – 5.84) 4.01 (2.53 – 6.36)
 ≥45 years 223 / 513 (43.5 %) 11.23 (7.84 – 16.10) 10.30 (6.41 – 16.54)
Sex   P = 0.008 P = 0.002
 Male 196 / 878 (22.3 %) 1 1
 Female 202 / 1131 (17.9 %) 0.72 (0.57 – 0.92) 0.67 (0.53 – 0.86)
Marital status   P = 0.03 P = 0.02
 Married/living as married 227 / 1205 (18.8 %) 1 1
 Divorced/separated/widowed 125 / 351 (35.6 %) 1.52 (1.11 -2.07 ) 1.49 (1.11 -2.00 )
 Single 46 / 453 (10.2 %) 1.22 (0.76 -1.96 ) 1.31 (0.81 -2.11 )
Education   P = 0.06 P = 0.06
 Secondary or above 91 / 675 (13.5 %) 1 1
 Primary 135 / 651 (20.7 %) 1.62 (1.09 -2.40 ) 1.62 (1.09 -2.40 )
 None/incomplete primary 172 / 683 (25.2 %) 1.45 (0.99 -2.13 ) 1.40 (0.95 -2.05 )
Monthly income (USD)   P = 0.32 P = 0.44
 Top tertile 119 / 655 (18.2 %) 1 1
 Middle tertile 120 / 663 (18.1 %) 1.02 (0.71 -1.46 ) 0.96 (0.65 -1.40 )
 Lower tertile 159 / 691 (23.0 %) 1.24 (0.90 -1.70 ) 1.16 (0.82 -1.64 )
Behavioral    Adjusted OR (95 % CI) c,e
Smoking   P = 0.004 P = 0.001
 Never smoked 320 / 1676 (19.1 %) 1 1
 Ex–smoker 37 / 153 (24.2 %) 0.59 (0.40 -0.87 ) 0.56 (0.38 -0.82 )
 Current smoker 41 / 179 (22.9 %) 0.57 (0.38 -0.84 ) 0.51 (0.35 -0.77 )
Alcohol consumption   P = 0.93 P = 0.59
 Never drinks/no drinking in past 12 months 273 / 1518 (18.0 %) 1 1
 Non–problem drinking7 100 / 399 (25.1 %) 1.00 (0.74 -1.36 ) 1.05 (0.76 -1.43 )
 Problem drinking7 24 / 89 (27.0 %) 1.11 (0.63 -1.95 ) 1.36 (0.75 -2.46 )
Eats fruit/vegetables fewer than five days/week   P = 0.69 P = 0.60
 No 239 / 1238 (19.3 %) 1 1
 Yes 159 / 771 (20.6 %) 1.05 (0.81 -1.37 ) 1.08 (0.82 -1.42 )
Days of vigorous physical activity/week   P = 0.38 P = 0.32
 None 255 / 1178 (21.6 %) 1.27 (0.89 -1.80 ) 1.29 (0.90 -1.85 )
 1–4 35 / 221 (15.8 %) 1.08 (0.66 -1.77 ) 1.07 (0.65 -1.77 )
 5+ 108 / 609 (17.7 %) 1 1
Anthropometric    Adjusted OR (95 % CI) c,f
BMI category (kg/m2)   P <0.001 P = 0.06
 Underweight (<18.5) 29 / 191 (15.2 %) 0.57 (0.35 -0.93 ) 0.60 (0.37 -0.97 )
 Normal (18.5– < 25) 217 / 1337 (16.2 %) 1 1
 Overweight (25– < 30) 92 / 309 (29.8 %) 2.00 (1.37 -2.92 ) 1.51 (0.94 -2.43 )
 Obese (≥30) 52 / 155 (33.5 %) 2.15 (1.34 -3.45 ) 1.57 (0.95 -2.59 )
Waist circumference >94 cm (M)/>80 cm (F)   P <0.001 P = 0.02
 No 235 / 1474 (15.9 %) 1 1
 Yes 161 / 531 (30.3 %) 2.47 (1.66 -3.69 ) 1.83 (1.12 - 3.01)
  1. aSystolic BP ≥140 and/or diastolic BP ≥90, in 3rd measurement at a single visit, or currently receiving drugs for high blood pressure; bactual number of respondents and proportion with hypertension, without sampling weights applied; cstandard errors adjusted for clustering in survey design; dsociodemographic factors adjusted for age, sex, stratum (a priori) and all independent sociodemographic predictors of hypertension: marital status and education (variables in bold); ebehavioral factors adjusted for age, sex, stratum, marital status, education and independent behavioral predictors of hypertension: smoking (variables in bold); fanthropometric factors adjusted for age, sex, stratum, marital status, education and independent behavioral and anthropometric predictors of hypertension: smoking, BMI category and waist circumference category (variables in bold); gbased on AUDIT screening tool. Non-problem drinking defined as AUDIT score <8; problem drinking as AUDIT score ≥8. AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; USD, US dollars