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Table 7 Factors associated with untreated stage II hypertensiona

From: High prevalence of hypertension and of risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs): a population based cross-sectional survey of NCDS and HIV infection in Northwestern Tanzania and Southern Uganda

  Number with stage II hypertension / total Number (%)b Age-, sex- and stratum adjusted OR (95 % CI)c Adjusted OR (95 % CI)c,d
Sociodemographic    
Age group   P <0.001 P <0.001
 <35 years 17 / 1163 (1.5 %) 1 1
 35–49 years 32 / 448 (7.1 %) 5.54 (3.18 -9.64 ) 4.98 (2.90 -8.54 )
 ≥50 years 81 / 368 (22.0 %) 22.20 (13.01-37.89) 19.10 (11.48-31.79)
Sex   P = 0.31 P = 0.41
 Male 50 / 870 (5.7 %) 1 1
 Female 80 / 1109 (7.2 %) 1.23 (0.82 -1.84 ) 1.18 (0.79 -1.78 )
Marital status   P = 0.38 P = 0.50
 Married/living as married 70 / 1191 (5.9 %) 1 1
 Divorced/separated/widowed 52 / 336 (15.5 %) 1.34 (0.88 -2.02 ) 1.28 (0.85 -1.92 )
 Single 8 / 452 (1.8 %) 0.91 (0.43 -1.94 ) 1.05 (0.49 -2.23 )
Education   P = 0.06 P = 0.06
 Secondary or above 20 / 664 (3.0 %) 1 1
 Primary 40 / 644 (6.2 %) 1.96 (1.01 -3.78 ) 1.96 (1.01 -3.78 )
 None/incomplete primary 70 / 671 (10.4 %) 1.91 (1.12 -3.29 ) 1.91 (1.12 -3.29 )
Monthly income (USD)   P = 0.34 P = 0.44
 Top tertile 15 / 294 (5.1 %) 1 1
 Middle tertile 20 / 296 (6.8 %) 1.23 (0.55 -2.74 ) 1.14 (0.50 -2.59 )
 Lower tertile 32 / 305 (10.5 %) 1.70 (0.81 -3.58 ) 1.56 (0.74 -3.26 )
Behavioral    Adjusted OR (95 % CI) e
Smoking   P = 0.20 P = 0.14
 Never smoked 107 / 1652 (6.5 %) 1 1
 Ex–smoker 10 / 150 (6.7 %) 0.56 (0.27 -1.18 ) 0.53 (0.25 -1.11 )
 Current smoker 13 / 176 (7.4 %) 0.61 (0.25 -1.50 ) 0.58 (0.24 -1.41 )
Alcohol consumption   P = 0.34 P = 0.38
 Never drinks/no drinking in past 12 months 87 / 1499 (5.8 %) 1 1
 Non-problem drinkingg 32 / 389 (8.2 %) 1.06 (0.67 -1.69 ) 1.08 (0.67 -1.72 )
 Problem drinkingg 10 / 88 (11.4 %) 1.83 (0.81 -4.14 ) 1.80 (0.79 -4.12 )
Eats fruit/veg fewer than five days/week   P = 0.57 P = 0.67
 No 76 / 1219 (6.2 %) 1 1
 Yes 54 / 760 (7.1 %) 1.15 (0.70 -1.89 ) 1.11 (0.68 -1.83 )
Days of vigorous physical activity/week   P = 0.31 P = 0.31
 None 90 / 1155 (7.8 %) 1.29 (0.76 -2.20 ) 1.33 (0.78 -2.25 )
 1–4 6 / 216 (2.8 %) 0.64 (0.26 -1.56 ) 0.66 (0.27 -1.60 )
 5+ 34 / 607 (5.6 %) 1 1
Anthropometric    Adjusted OR (95 % CI) f
BMI category (kg/m2)   P = 0.12 P = 0.85
 Underweight (<18.5) 13 / 191 (6.8 %) 0.76 (0.33 – 1.72) 0.84 (0.38 -1.87 )
 Normal (18.5– < 25) 65 / 1329 (4.9 %) 1 1
 Overweight (25– < 30) 29 / 299 (9.7 %) 1.60 (0.88 – 2.91) 1.01 (0.53 -1.93 )
 Obese (≥30) 19 / 144 (13.2 %) 2.11 (1.07 – 4.15) 1.25 (0.61 -2.57 )
Waist circumference >94 cm (males)/>80 cm (women)   P < 0.001 P < 0.001
 No 67 / 1468 (4.6 %) 1 1
 Yes 62 / 507 (12.2 %) 2.58 (1.49 -4.46 ) 2.72 (1.58 -4.67 )
  1. aSystolic BP ≥160 and/or diastolic BP ≥100 in third measurement at a single visit. Excludes those on treatment for hypertension (9 in Tanzania and 21 in Uganda); bactual number of respondents and proportion with hypertension, without sampling weights applied; cstandard errors adjusted for clustering in survey design; dsociodemographic factors adjusted for age, sex, stratum (a priori) and independent sociodemographic predictors of stage II hypertension: education (variables in bold). ebehavioral factors adjusted for age, sex and stratum (a priori) and education; f anthropometric factors adjusted for age, sex, stratum, education and independent behavioral and anthropometric predictors of stage II hypertension: waist circumference category; gbased on AUDIT screening tool. Non-problem drinking defined as AUDIT score <8; problem drinking as AUDIT score ≥8. AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; USD, US dollars