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Table 2 Effect of exercise on fatigue based on an intention-to-treat analysis

From: Effects of an 18-week exercise programme started early during breast cancer treatment: a randomised controlled trial

    Baseline to 18 weeks (i.e., post intervention) Baseline to 36 weeks
   Baseline Within-group difference Between-group difference Within-group difference Between-group difference
   Mean (SD) Mean [95 % CI] Mean [95 % CI] ES Mean [95 % CI] Mean [95 % CI] ES
Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory             
 General fatigue UC 10.6 (4.1) 2.3 [1.4 to 3.3]   Reference   0.7 [−0.3 to 1.6]   Reference  
  I 10.1 (4.3) 1.9 [1.0 to 2.8] −1.0 [−2.1 to 0.1] −0.23 0.3 [−0.7 to 1.2] −0.9 [−2.1 to 0.3] −0.22
 Physical fatigue UC 10.6 (4.1) 2.2 [1.3 to 3.2]   Reference   −0.4 [−1.4 to 0.6]   Reference  
  I 9.9 (4.3) 1.6 [0.7 to 2.5] −1.3 [−2.5 to −0.1] −0.30 −0.3 [−1.3 to 0.6] −0.5 [−1.7 to 0.8] −0.11
 Mental fatigue UC 10.2 (4.1) 1.5 [0.6 to 2.4]   Reference   1.0 [0.1 to 1.9]   Reference  
  I 9.8 (4.0) 1.6 [0.8 to 2.5] 0.0 [−1.2 to 1.2] 0.01 0.6 [−0.3 to 1.5] −0.6 [−1.8 to 0.7] −0.15
 Reduced motivation UC 8.7 (3.4) −0.3 [−1.0 to 0.5]   Reference   −1.5 [−2.3 to −0.8]   Reference  
  I 8.0 (3.5) −0.2 [−0.9 to 0.5] −0.2 [−1.1 to 0.7] −0.06 −0.6 [−1.3 to 0.1] 0.7 [−0.2 to 1.7] 0.21
 Reduced activity UC 10.5 (3.7) 1.2 [0.3 to 2.1]   Reference   −1.1 [−2.0 to −0.2]   Reference  
  I 10.3 (3.8) 1.0 [0.1 to 1.9] −0.4 [−1.5 to 0.8] −0.09 −1.5 [−2.3 to −0.6] −0.4 [−1.6 to 0.7] −0.11
Fatigue Quality List             
 Frustrating UC 22.8 (24.7) 9.8 [3.6 to 16.0]   Reference   2.8 [−3.6 to 9.1]   Reference  
  I 15.9 (19.2) 7.9 [1.9 to 13.8] −7.6 [−15.5 to 0.3] −0.34 6.0 [−0.1 to 12.1] −2.2 [−10.4 to 5.9] −0.10
 Exhausting UC 6.9 (16.6) 4.9 [0.7 to 9.2]   Reference   −2.4 [−6.7 to 2.0]   Reference  
  I 6.9 (15.4) 5.0 [0.9 to 9.0] 0.8 [−4.6 to 6.2] 0.05 −0.7 [−4.9 to 3.5] 2.5 [−3.1 to 8.1] 0.16
 Pleasant UC 26.3 (20.7) −4.6 [−9.6 to 0.3]   Reference   3.0 [−2.1 to 8.1]   Reference  
  I 29.2 (20.6) −4.3 [−9.1 to 0.4] 2.6 [−3.2 to 8.5] 0.13 1.5 [−3.4 to 6.3] 0.5 [−5.6 to 6.6] 0.02
 Frightening UC 8.8 (17.1) −1.4 [−5.0 to 2.2]   Reference   −4.9 [−8.6 to −1.2]   Reference  
  I 12.5 (17.5) −3.3 [−6.7 to 0.2] 0.2 [−3.7 to 4.2] 0.01 −3.9 [−7.4 to −0.3] 2.9 [−1.2 to 7.0] 0.17
  1. ES effect size, I intervention group, UC usual care group
  2. Except for the pleasant dimension of the Fatigue Quality List, negative ES for fatigue dimensions indicate effects in favour of the exercise intervention group
  3. Between-group effects were assessed using mixed models including the measurements obtained at 18 and 36 weeks, adjusted for age, hospital, radiotherapy, use of tissue expander, receptor status and the value of the outcome variable at baseline
  4. Within-group effects were assessed using mixed models including the measurements obtained at baseline, 18 and 36 weeks, adjusted for age, hospital, radiotherapy, use of tissue expander, and receptor status
  5. Baseline results and within-group differences were based on participants having baseline measurements (102 participants in each group). Between-group differences were based on participants for whom measurements at 18 or 36 weeks were available (93 intervention and 89 usual care)